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... MANCHESTER ... 



Historic Association 



^ COLLECTIONS dt 



IN TWO PARTS 

Part I. — Historic Quarterly. 
Part II.— Contributions to History of Derryfield 



Volume II - 1900-1901 



MANCHESTER, N. H.: 

MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION 

1901. 



OFFICERS— 1901. 



President — HENRY W. HERRICK. 

, r „ f JOSEPH KIDDER, 

Vice-Presidents J J0SEpH w FELL0W S. 



» 



Treasurer — JOHN DOWST. 
Recording Secretary — BAYARD C. RYDER. 
Corresponding Secretary— GEO. WALDO BROWNE. 
Librarian — FRED WILLIAM LAMB. 
Historiographer — GEORGE WALDO BROWNE. 

executive committee. 

HENRY W. HERRICK, EDWIN P. RICHARDSON, 

BAYARD C. RYDER, JOS1AH CARPENTER, 

JOHN G. CRAWFORD, GEORGE W. BROWNE, 
DAVID CROSS. 

publication committee. 

GEORGE WALDO BROWNE, 

SYLVESTER CLARK GOULD, 

EDGAR JAY KNOWLTON, 

FRED WILLIAM LAMB, 

FRANCIS BROWN EATON. 



1163321 

CONTENTS PART I. 



Tyng Township, with Introduction and Editorial Notes. 
By George Waldo Browne, 1-84 

Chapter I. The Debatable Ground, 1 

^-^Chapter II. Acts and Grants of Tyng Township, 12 

^ Committees' Report, - - - - - - 12 

--£ The Grant, 13 

The Graut amended, - - - - - - 15 

fV The Survey, - - - - - - - - 16 

f ~* Surveyor's report, - - - - - - - 16 

\J Confirmation to the grantees, - - - - - 17 

. Shortage of Land, - - - - - - 19 

Tyng Township belonged to Middlesex County, - 19 

The Piscataquog grant, ------ 20 

\A* Plan of addition to Tyng grant, 20 

N^vV Grants and settlements of early Manchester, - - 22 

| Passaconnaway grant, ------ 23 

v Chapter III. Proprietors' Records of Tyng Township, 26 

Warning for the first meeting, - - - - 26 

First meeting of the grantees, 26 

■> Captain William Tyng's snow shoe men, 26 

The warrant, for second meeting, 29 

Meeting at Westford, - - - - - - 30 

Report of committee on accounts, 34 

^\^ Assignment of lots, ------ 35 

\ Committee to sustain certain claims, 40 

* Report of Committee in regard to disputed 1680 acres, 40 

Action for a saw-mill, - - - - - -42 

Meeting to raise money, ----- 44 

Action in regard to hiring a minister, 47 
Vote to build a meeting-house and inquire into the 

boundary dispute, ------ 53 

Raise money for preaching, ----- 58 

Vote not to have a clerk, ----- 59 

Expense of raising a meeting-house. 64 

Chapter IV. Location and Description of Lots, 78 

Action for indemnity, ------ 78 

The old record book, 80 



IV CONTENTS. 

Chapter V. Action to Recover Loss of Grant, 81 

Grantees of Tyng Township seek relief, - - - 81 

Petition of Proprietors for equivalent grant, - - 81 

Town of Wilton, Maine, granted, 84 

Colonel Joseph Blanchard. George Waldo Browne 85 

Captain William Tyng. George Waldo Browne. 87 

Early Settlement of Kelley's Falls. Wm. E. Moore. 89 

Chandler E. Potter. Joe H. Potter. 97 

John E. Trow. Founder of the u Nashua Telegraph." 

Henry W. Herrick. 10 

HISTORIC QUARTERLY SUPPLEMENT. 

Officers of Manchester Historic Association, - i 

List of Members, December 19, 190#, - n 

Proceedings Annual Meeting, December 19, 1900, - in 
Resolutions on death of William E. Moore. F. B. Eaton, in 

Quarterly report cf Librarian. F. W. Lamb. - - in 

Editorial Notes, ------- IV 

Situation in Merrimack Valley, 1740-1750. G. W. Browne, v 

Garrisons. Geo. Waldo Browne. - vn 

William Ellery Moore. Francis B. Eaton. - - ix 

Proceedings Quarterly Meeting, June 19, 1901, - - xni 

Allen Newcomb Clapp. Henry W. Herrick. - - xiv 
Resolutions on death of Fred G. Hartshorn. G.W. Browne, xvn 

Historic Notes. Compiled by Fred W. Lamb. - - xvm 

Procedings Quarterly Meeting, September 18, 1901, - xxi 

Proceedings Annual Meeting, December 18, 1901, - xxn 

Editorial Notes, ------- xxv 

Fred G. Hartshorn. George W. Browne. - - - xxvin 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The Old Record Book. Frontispiece 

Plan of Tyng Township, - 18 

Plan of Addition to Tyng Grant, 20 

Scene in Manchester in 1842. The Granite Bridge. - 89 

Portrait of Chandler E. Potter, - - - - 97 

Portrait of John E. Trow, 108 

An Old Garrison, -■■-.-- Supplement, i 

Portrait of William E. Moore, - - -■■■*■ . ix 

Portrait of Allen N. Clapp, - - - " - xm 

Portrait of Fred G. Hartshorn, - - " - xxi 



CONTENTS PART II. 



Contributions to the History of Old Derryfield 

By William E. Moore. Pages 1-128 



Chapter I. 

Preliminary, 
Landmarks, 
Rock Rimmon, 
The Pinnacle, 
The Merrimack, 
The Piscataquog, 
Black Brook, 
Cohas Brook, 
Massabesic, 
Special features, 

Chapter TI. 



The age of ice water, . . . 

Gradual disappearance of water, . 
The earth makes steam, 
A witness or two, .... 

Chapter III. Concerning Early Floods. 

Chapetr IV. 



9 
10 
10 
11 

16 



Rocks in places, .... 


27 


Sand area, ..... 


30 


Great clay beds, .... 


30 


Vegetable survivals, 


34 


Rhododendron swamp, . 


35 


Pot-holes and rock wear, 


35 


Chapter V. 




The Devil's Pulpit, 


40 


Glacial dams, .... 


46 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 



PROPRIETORS' RECORDS, ACTS, GRANTS, AND HIS- 
TORICAL NOTES RELATING TO THE EARLY 
SETTLEMENT OF MANCHESTER, N. H. 



READ BY GEORGE WALDO BROWNE BEFORE THE MANCHESTER 
HISTORIC ASSOCIATION, SEPTEMBER 15, 1897. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE DEBATABLE GROUND. 



Six miles of river, " a hideous waterfall," long ribs of yellow 
sand thrown in disjointed array on the river's bank, a back- 
ground of ancient pines and oaks, less than a score of primi- 
tive dwellings, with log walls and bark or thatched roofs, fifty 
or sixty men, women and children imbued with the stubborn 
spirit of the trying times, a solitary wigwam standing by the 
skirt of the forest, its dusty occupant droning in the doorway 
over the unhappy fate of his race, and with a bitterness creeping 
into his soul in spite of his professed Christianity ; , these com- 
prised the warp and weft of the old township, which never 
found a place on the maps, but which still lives in tradition as 
Old Harry's Town. Throw over the landscape that dreary lone- 
liness belonging to a primeval wilderness, over the minds and 
hearts of men the deep cloud of feelings arising from religious 
differences and hostile settlements, and you have completed the 

The Historic Quarterly, Manchester, N. H., March, 1901. 
Vol.11, No. 1. 



Z MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

picture, mentally and physically, of the birthplace of the Man- 
chester-on-the-Merrimack. 

If the sand dunes heaped upon the river-banks like the waves 
of an ancient flood caught by some mysterious power and held 
forever in tension made a forbidding picture in their dark- 
green setting of everlasting pines, and gave small promise of a 
harvest to the husbandman, this particular region of the Merri- 
mack was bountiful in its riches of another nature. For un- 
numbered centuries the surrounding wilclwoods had been a veri- 
table Happy Hunting-Ground for the dusky-hued race that 
held it under the natural law of primeval possession as their 
domain. 

These wild warriors were beardless men of tall, straight figure, 
coal-black hair, copper -hued skin, prominent nose, high cheek 
bones, and small, dark, piercing eyes, which could look at the 
midday sun without flinching. They advanced through the 
dim aisles of the forest with a swift, silent step, one foot being 
placed directly in front of the other, and not as a white man 
walks with toes turned out. Their primitive costume con- 
sisted simply of deer-skin leggings, skin robes, or hunting shirts 
in winter, and moccasins made also of deer-skin; this simple 
garb being made more picturesque by fringes and ornaments 
painted in bright colors. Their principal weapon was a long 
stout bow of hornbeam, or some equally strong wood, with 
flint-headed arrows, while they made out of a small, flat stone, 
w T ith wooden handle attached by deer thongs, a sort of clumsy 
hatchet called the " tomahawk." These, with a bone or flint 
hunting knife, comprised their weapons of defense. Their sole 
implement of tilling the soil was a hoe made from a clam shell, 
or a moose's shoulder blade attached to a wooden handle by 
means of strips of deer skin. Their rude dwellings, called wig- 
wams, were built by sticking small saplings or branches of 
trees into the ground in a circle, having their tops bent over 
and fastened together so as to form a cone. This rough frame- 
work was then covered with mats of skins or bark, except a 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. O 

small aperture at the crest for the smoke to escape, and an 
opening on opposite sides for places of entrance and exit, be- 
ing thus arranged so that the one on the sunny or lee side could 
be always open, and the other closed. 

This race of strange people, styled savages because they 
knew nothing of the higher aspirations of civilization, pagans 
because they worshipped with superstitious simplicity the god 
of nature, and Indians because the discoverer of America be- 
lieved he had found a remote part of India and that they were 
the inhabitants, lived in the most primitive manner on the fish 
abounding in the ponds and streams aud the creatures roaming 
the wilderness. The only approach to agriculture of these bar- 
barians, who scorned work, was the tillage by their squaws, of 
maize or Indian corn, which tossed its gay tassels in the summer 
breeze on the sight of future cities long before the race which 
was to build them dreamed of the delicious sweetness of a 
johnny cake or corn pone. The squash, the bean and the 
pumpkin came in for a small share of attention. Having no 
mill with which to grind his grain the Indian was contented to 
crush it between two rocks, and boiling it soft, called the rare- 
delicacy Sonkahtahhash, a name shortened to succotash which 
we apply to our dish of similar nature. 

So abundant was game in these regions it seemed a real 
" Happy Hunting-Ground " placed here for the mortal sons of 
the chase, and in as great pride and vain-glory as the mailed 
knight of old started on a crusade against an enemy in some 
far-distant land did the dusky hunter stalk the giant moose 
(Alee Americanus) , that monarch of v New England quadru- 
peds whose huge' antlers, as it pursued some foe, crashed 
through the dense growth with resounding thwacks heard a mile 
away ; or it might be he sought with keener sight and lighter step 
the more timid, nimble -footed deer (Cariacus Americanns) , 
as it slaked its thirst in some limpid stream or leisurely browsed 
the tender birch or rank water grass. Right royal sport was 
that, not one whit lessened in real enjoyment by a hand-to-hand 



4 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

struggle with the aggressive bear ( Ursus Americanus) , or a 
swift measure of agility and strength with the treacherous wild 
cat or catamount (Felis lynx) . Did he care to seek smaller 
and less dangerous game there were the mischievous wolverine 
(Gals luscus), the cunning fox (Vulpes fulvus) , the sly raccoon 
(Procyon lotor), the nimble squirrel (Sciurus leucotis), the 
skulking seecawk (skunk — Mephitis Americanus), the hiding 
woodchuck (Arctomys monax), with the ravenous wolf (Cams 
occidentalis) haunting him to give a spice of adventure to his 
sport. Did he wish different food, strutted across his path- 
way with a short-sightedness of danger surprising to him that 
American ostrich, the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) , or in 
the denser woods lurked that arch denizen the quail ( Ooturnix 
vulgaris), the restless ruffled grouse (Bonasa umbellus), while 
the frightened partridge (Perdix cinerea) skurried at frequent 
intervals across his course. 

Did he seek for skins of fur to keep him warm during the 
long winters he ran down the short-legged otter (Lulra Cana- 
densis), as it coasted an embankment, leaving a track in the 
the snow which looked like the passage of a log ; or seeking the 
amphibious, fur-bearing animals he trapped with his carefully 
laid snares that most sagacious quadruped of forest or stream 
the home-building beaver ( Castor rodentia) , which delighted in 
the still, deep waters, or he caught the cautious mink, as it 
burrowed in the river's bank, or he might content himself by 
capturing a musquash or muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) , its oil 
sack affording a rare perfume for his dusky sweetheart, fully 
compensating for the poorer quality of its fur. There was 
still other game worthy of his arrows, and which he need not 
look for amid the shadows of the forest. These were the feath- 
ered denizens of the air, the wild birds on wing, foremost 
among which was the bald eagle (Haliaetus leucocejjhalus) , 
soaring high overhead, as it swept grandly on toward its eyrie 
on some distant mountain, or the brown hawk (Bccipter Cooperi) , 
swooping boldly down upon its unsuspecting prey, the busy 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 

woodpecker (Picus minor), hammering at its chosen tree until 
the woods resounded with its steady blows, to say nothing of 
that night patrol, the white owl (Strix pratinoola), breaking 
the silence of the gloom with its deep, bass cries, or its half- 
brother, the great horned owl (Bubo Vivginiana), barking like 
a dog, hallooing like a man, or mimicking with wonderful fidelity 
other cries and sounds of life. Of the aquatic tribe likely to 
tempt him was always first the magnificent snowy swan (Cygnus 
Americanus), the condor of New England, standing so high 
when on its feet as to reach its long bill seven feet into the 
air, presenting a grand sight when on wing. Next to this 
huge and beautiful bird was the wild or black goose (Anser 
Canadensis) , a bird of passage, which led its feathered pha- 
lanx on its airy cruises in a huge, wedge-shaped body. Then 
there was the white goose (Anser Gambelli), more highly prized 
for being seldom seen, the black duck (Anas marila), possess- 
ing such marvelous wing powers, the noisy loon or diver 
(Colymbus glacialis), and many other birds and beasts of lesser 
size but scarcely less prominent. 

If noted as the " Happy Hunting-Ground," the region of 
" Silver River ' n was famed still wider for its wonderful fisheries. 
If the woods were overrun with game, the sparkling waters 
fairly swarmed at their seasons with schools of alewives (Clupea 
serrata) , and shoals of eels (Anguilla tenurvstris) , shad (Alosa 
prcestabilis) , salmon (Salmo salar), with a generous sprink- 
ling of sturgeons (Acipenser oxyrhynchus) , all waiting a pas- 
sage into the tributary streams or over the falls of the main 
river. Into this writhing mass the fisherman had only to urge 
his canoe and net or spear the fish as his fancy dictated, until 
he should tire of the wanton sport. Below the main fall Silver 
River is divided by rocky islands, the passages of water being 
easily rendered impassable for the fish by a weir that would 
not only hold those which might be caught at the time, but 
those which were driven back by an unsuccessful attempt to clear 
the steep cataract were carried into the toils, until they should 

1 Indian term for the Merrimack. 



MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 



be dragged forth at the convenience of their captors. If this 
kind of capture became too tame for the wild fisherman he 
had only to station himself on one of the rocky points over- 
hanging the channels and spear or net at will, never failing to 
secure a prize as long as he cared to keep up that sort of fishing. 1 
Thus the very territory styled by the white man as Old 
Harry's town was an ideal resort to the red- browed brother- 
hood, many generations of whom hunted the foor-footed deni- 
zens of the ancient woods, snared its wild birds, netted or 
speared the innumerable fish swimming in its pools and basins, 
planted in its clearings their patches of maize, or paddled with 
remarkable skill their frail barks along its foaming rapids. 
Where their pale-face successors were to build their homes, 
within siiiht and sound of Namaske, 2 stood the rude tepees of 

1 Something of the great numbers of these fish may he better undertsood by a 
statement of the fact that so numerously did they swarm into the smaller streams 
feeding the Merrimack that a man couid walkover the water from bank to bank on 
their backs dry shod! — Potter. 

2 Derivation — Amoskeag is derived from Names-(fish) kee-(hiurh) et-(place), 
i. e " nigh fi-h place," abreviated to Namasket which became in turn Namaske, 
corrupted by the English into Namaoskeag, Amoskeag. Before the present 
order of spelling this word was fixed, it seems to have taxed to the utmost the in- 
genuity of the writer to give it the, proper orthography, hence we find the name 
spelled over fifty ways, by as many writers, as follows : 



Amasceeg, Masonian Papers. 

Amaskeag, Old Records. 

Amaskeeg, " '• 

Amaskeeg ffalls, " " 
Amaskege, Charter, Dunbarton. 

amaskege, Old Records. 

Am-auh-nour-skeag, Prof. Th. R. Cros- 
by, Dartmouth. 
Ambuskeeg, Old Records. 
Ameeskeeg, " " 

ameskeeg, " " 

Ameskcg, " " 

Ameskeegffalls, " " 

Amiciskeg,* " " 

Amma^kage, 
Ammautikeeg 
Ammoskeeg, 
Ammoskeig, • 

ammasceeg ffalls,' 
Ammuskeag, ' 
Ammuskeeg, ' 

Ammnskiege, ' 
Amniskeag, ' 

Amos Ceeg, ' 

An.osi-eeg, 
Amooceig, 
Amoschee; 
Amoskeag 



Rev. Jos. Secombe. 
Old Records. 



Mass. His. Collections. 
Old Records. 
Now common. 



Amoskeag, Shipping list, Blodget canal. 

Amoskeeg, 

Amuskeag, 

Amuskeeg, 

Amuskeig, 

Amuski^ge, 

Amuskeg, 

Naamkeake, 

Naimkeak, 

Na<-mkeek, 

Naimkeek, 

Nahumkeag, 

Nainkeak, 

Namaschuck, 

Namaskeag, 

Namaoskeag, 

Namaske, 

Namaski, 

Namaskeeg, 

Namasket, 

Namask°eke, 

Namaskiog, 

Natnmaskeag, 

Namoskeag, 

Nameskeeg, 

Naumkeag, 

Naamoeek, 

Skeag, 



Old Records. 

Lovell's Journal, 
Old Records. 

Morris' Map. 
Old Records. 



N. T. True,M. 
Old Records, 
N- T. True, M. 
Old Reords. 



N. T. True, M. D. 
Old Records. 



John Smith. 
Old Records, 



* A " pointe " of land in Eliot, Maine, had that name. 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 7 

these warriors, passing, it may be, the brighest days of their 
lives here. But what was so pleasant and ■ desirable for them 
must in the course of events excite the envy and covetedness of 
rival tribes, and the Penuacooks were often called upon to de- 
fend at frightful sacrifice their homes and primitive rights. 
From the west came the fierce Mohawks, with generation^ of 
hatred concentrated to be exploded upon them ; from the east 
came the terrible Tarratines, with revenge long nurtured in 
hearts that never forgot, each in turn waging their fearful bat- 
tles of extermination. 

The perils and privations the Massachusetts colonists were 
called upon to endure were so many and followed each other so 
closely that it was over a hundred years after the landing of the 
Pilgrims at Plymouth before the most adventurous of these 
pioneers had pushed their way north as far as the Paradise of 
the Red Men. They found the same evergreen monarchs of 
the forest, as had stood there for unknown ages, throwing their 
sombre shadows over the sunny waters ; they found the same 
sand dunes, which had lain there since the days of the ancient 
floods, heaped upon the river's banks like the waves of the 
ocean; they found the stream, as of yore, abounding with fish 
and the woods with game ; they listened with awe to the thun- 
der of old Namaske, which had never been silent since the be- 
ginning; they found, flitting through the forest aisles like 
dusky spectres, or skimming in their phantom-like canoes the 
snowy cataracts of the river the few survivors of the doomed 
race, and again this valley was debatable ground. But the 
handful of Indians were poorly fitted to cope with their new 
enemies, and their resistance was not by open battle but 
through a predatory warfare lasting for years. It is ever so 
where barbarism and civilization meet. 

It is not certain when the first settler located within the 
bounds of the debatable ground. The Scotch-Irish began 
their settlement in Nutfield in 1719. Having been refused a 



8 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

graot by the Provinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, 
they accepted a deed from John Wheelwright, grandson of Rev. 
John Wheelwright, of an area of ten miles square known as 
Nutfield, and supposed to include the land to the east bank of 
the Merrimack from Cohas to Namaske. August 26, 1720, 
English colonists, who were opposed to them, obtained a grant 
from New Hampshire for almost the same territory, and with 
the same purpose of holding the fishing grounds of the Merri- 
mack. This grant was called " Cheshire," but afterwards 
was named Chester. In June 1722, the colonists were suc- 
cessful in getting from Governor Shu'ce of New Hampshire a 
grant of ten miles square and supposed by them to cover the 
coveted tract along the river. 

In 1724 the first road was laid out with the Falls for the ob- 
jective point, and " keeping near to the old path to Amosceeg 
Falls." This road was returned in 1729, but the date of build- 
ing is unknown. It had probably become passable through 
use and was never built. There is a tradition that the surveyor 
in determining the most direct course to follow caused a huge 
bonfire to be built at Amoskeag Falls, and was thus enabled to 
get his bearings ! Still it is not known any actual settler had 
fixed his abode in what has since become the territory of Man- 
chester, though it is possible the cabin of some solitary fisher- 
man stood under the gloaming of the primeval forest. This 
seems the more likely as the fishing at the Falls, which had 
drawn the Indian to its banks in the days gone by, was the 
natural magnet to entice the whites thither. 

Tradition, which is ever ready to nurture history, says that 
Rev. James McGregor of the Londonderry settlers was the 
first to visit the Falls. No doubt he was one of a party to 
reach the place soon after their coming to New Hampshire. 
At any rate he became the recipient of the first fish caught 
at the opening of each season by the members of his parish. 
Still, though the Londonderry people intended to hold the terri- 
tory about Namaske, they attempted no permanent settlement, 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. \) 

as far as is known, until 1729. The Massachusetts people be- 
ginning to gather about the place, created an uneasiness among 
them, and April 22, 1731, it was voted to begin actual settle- 
ment there as soon as possible. Two years later, at the request 
of the town, John McNiel made the first permanent settlement, 
as far as can be ascertained, on the strip of territory called 
Harrytown and within what is now the business portion of 
Manchester. His house stood near McNiel street between Elm 
and Canal streets. About that time, says Potter, William 
Gamble built a log house on the east side of the brook which 
passed through the farm of his great grandson, Samuel Gam- 
ble. The path from Londonderry passed near his house and 
crossed the Cohas below the Haseltine mills. 

While the Scotch-Irish dallied in carrying out their inten- 
tions, a more potent factor was at work to circumvent them 
than they dreamed. The grants that had been made so far 
were what might be considered civil grants, with the intention 
of getting those who came with the purpose of actually settling 
and improving the country ; but Massachusetts, anxious to hold 
to the territory she claimed in the Merrimack valley, inaugurated 
quite a different system, which was to grant townships in New 
Hampshire to certain individuals for what was thought proper 
to be denoted as meritorious service in fighting the Indians. 

The attacks of the Indians on the settlers was generally fol- 
lowed by an expedition of the whites against them. Some- 
times these retaliatory movements were made to rescue captives 
who had been carried off; sometimes they were undertaken out 
of a spirit of revenge for the injuries done them ; or they 
were done with the hope and intention of driving the enemy 
farther back toward Canada, or New France as it was then 
called, the French being on friendly terms with them. 

During the long and trying period of warfare over twenty of 
these expeditions were made into the territory of what now 
comprises the state of New Hampshire, always with the sanc- 
tion and encouragement of the Massachusetts province. Among 



10 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

others was the memorable expedition of Captain William Tyng, 
which he led in the midst of the winter of 1703-4 up the valley 
of the Merrimack, past the Falls of Amoskeag to the rendez- 
vous of the Indians at Pequawkett, a party of thirty- six men 
on snow-shoes, surprised the enemy and bore back five 1 bloody 
trophies as the prize, receiving a bounty of forty pounds 2 for 
each scalp. This expedition went into history as the u snow- 
shoe expedition," and was not only most successfully per- 
formed, but proved an example for others to imitate in the 
method adopted for travel. 3 

Nearly twenty-five years after, seeing the grants being made 
to others no more deserving, the survivors of Capt. Tyng's ex- 
pedition petitioned to the General Assembly for their reward, 
and were favored by the grant of that tract of country on the 
Merrimack below Namaske, which had gained the disreputable 
name of Old Harry's Town, but which they changed to Tyng 
Township in honor of their leader, then dead. But claiming 
the territory by their grant from New Hampshire, the Scotch- 
Irish, several families of whom had now founded homes in the 
district, stoutly maintained their claims, so an intense rivalry 
sprang up between the two factions. 

The first of these were austere Orthodoxs in religious belief, 
made more inflexible in purpose by generations of opposition 
and oppression, while the latter were as rigid Presbyterians, 
also made intense in their convictions by long and bitter perse- 
cution. With these adverse ideas on that subject which was 
nearest their hearts, with mutual premonitions that each was 
seeking the other's ill fare, these two branches of the human 
family at a time and under conditions which should have made 



1 Some say six. 

2 It must be borne in mind that colonial money had depreciated about one-third. 

3 Tins statement is open to debate. As the winter approached (1703) the fron- 
tier towns were ordered to provide a lartre number of snow-shoes for the purpose 
of marching against the Indians. Major Winthror- Hilton, Capt. John Gilman of 
Exeter, Capt. Chesley and < apt. Davis of Oyster River, marched with their com- 
panies on snow-shoes into the woods; but returned without success. (Belknap's 
History of New Hampshire, Vol. I, p. 332.) 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 11 

them faithful friends, became vindictive enemies. One faction 
looked upon the other as " intruders," and the second upon the 
first as " foreigners," forgetting in turn that they might come 
under the same denomination. No social or business inter- 
course was countenanced, while inter-marriage was looked 
upon as a curse. While no blood was shed at this time, a long 
and sanguinary struggle with all the stubborn opposition a bor- 
der hatred could arouse was begun on the banks of Silver River, 
and for the third time Namaske was Debatable Ground. 

In one respect the grantees of Tyng Township and their 
rivals were fortunate. They came during one of those transitory 
intervals of comparative peace, which came and went during 
the hundred years' war existing between the races like flashes 
of sunlight in a stormy season. In 1725 occurred the memo- 
rable Lovewell's fight, and a little later the overthrow of the 
French at Norridgewock, the evil genius of the red men, when 
the chief of the Abnaki Indians, then the most powerful tribe 
in Northern New England, signed a treaty of peace at Boston. 
This covenant of peace was not broken until 1744, and the 
whole history of Tyng Township is included within these dates. 



12 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 



CHAPTER II. 



ACTS AND GRANTS OF TYNG TOWNSHIP. 

In 1727, when Massachusetts began to grant unappropriated 
lands in New Hampshire, Major Ephriam Hildreth, Captain 
John Shepley and others who had been soldiers under Captain 
Tyng in his snow-shoe expedition petitioned to the General 
Assembly for a grant of land as compensation for their ser- 
vices, but receiving no response the matter was dropped until 
the meeting of the legislative bodies in the winter of 1733, 
when a second request was made and the following action was 
taken : 

A Petition of Ephraim Hildreth and John Shipley, for them- 
selves and other Voluntiers under the Command of Capt, Wil- 
liam Tyng deceased, in his march to Winnipisiocke Anno 1704, 
setting forth many difficulties and hardships they underwent in 
said March when they killed five Indians ; that the government 
hath seen cause in their Wisdom to make a Grant to the heirs 
of the said Captain, praying that they may obtain a Grant of 
of Lands for a Township on the West of Dunstable and North 
of Toivnshend or elsewhere of the unappropriated Lands, under 
such conditions and restrictions as shall be thought meet. Read 
and Ordered, That the prayer of the Petition be granted, and 
Mr. Welles, Major Brattle, Mr. Choate, Mr. Shove, and Mr. 
Hohson was desired to prepare a Vote for the Grant of Six 
Miles square of the unappropriated Lands of the Province, in 
some convenient place for a Townships to be made the Peti- 
tioners under proper conditions and regulations for settling a 
Town, and that they report thereon as soon as may be. 

— Mass. House Journal, Feb. 6, 1733-4. 

COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 

Mr. Welles from the Committee appointed the 6th, currant 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 13 

to consider the Petition of Ephraim Hildreth, John Shipley, 
and others under the command of Captain William Tying de- 
ceased, made report which was read and accepted, and Voted, 
That a tract of Land of the contents of six Miles square, West 
of Dunstable, and North of Townshend 1 be granted the Peti- 
tioners ; and for as much as there were but forty -six 2 of these 
Voluntiers, it is hereby Ordered, That six more be admitted with 
them who were in the Country's Service under Captain Lovewell 
and omitted in the Grants! made to him and Company, and 
are wanting to the number of sixty to be made up of those that 
were at the Fort Fight or Long March in the Narragansett War 
or others admitted into this Grant by this Court these Grantees 
actually to settle the abovesaid tract with sixty Families within 
four years from the Survey of this Land and acceptance thereof 
by this Court, each Family to have an House eighteen feet 
square and seven feet stud at the least and four acres brought to 
and plowed or stocked with english Grass and fitted for mowing ; 
the said Grantees also to lay out the three Lots to draw future 
divisions with other Lots, one for the first Minister, one for the 
Ministry, and one for the School, and within said term of four 
years to settle a learned orthordox Minister and build a con- 
venient House for the public Worship of God ; the above said 
tract of Land to be laid out under the direction of a Committee 
of the Court by a Surveyor and Chain-men on Oath, at the 
Charge of the Petitioners. And whereas divers of the persons 
for whose merits this Grant is made are deceased; it is there-' 
fore further Ordered, That in such case, the Grant shall be and 
belong to some one of his male descendants, wherein preference 
shall be given to the eldest ; and it is further Ordered, That 
those persons shares in this Grant shall revert to the Province 
who shall not perform the Conditions of the Grant as above. 
Sent up for Concurrence. 

Mass. House Journal, Feb. 15, 1733-4. 

THE GRANT. 

A Petition of Ephraim Hildreth & John Shipleigh for them- 
selves and others Soldiers under the command of Cap* Will m 
Tyng dec'ed Shewiug that they Served the Province as Volun- 



1 Fox's History of Dnnstable. 

2 Lovewell's town now Pembroke, N. H, 



14 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

tiers in the Indian War & in the Year 1703 performed a hard 
& difficult March in the winter season with Snow Shoes as far 
as Winnepesocket Lake & and Killed six of the Enemy that 
the said Company were the first that attempted to March against 
the Enemy with Snow Shoes Since which the same Method has 
been followed with Great Success Against the Indians And 
therefore praying for a G-rant of Land Six Miles Square for a 
Township for the Officers and Soldiers of said Company now 
living & the Represent of those that are Deceased. 

In the Kouse of Represent* 1 Read & Ordered That the peti rs 
have leave by a Surveyor and Chainmen on Oath to Survey & 
lay out between the Townships of Litchfield and Suncook or 
Lovels Town on the East Side of the Merrimack River the 
Quantity of Six Miles Square of Land Exclusive of Robert 
Rand's Grant and the three Farms pitched upon by the Hon ble 
Samuel Thaxter,* John Turner and William Dudley Esq 1 ' to 
satisfy their Grants and also Exclusive of Two Hundred Acres 
of Land at the Most Convenient place of Amoskeeg Falls ; 
which is hereby reserved for the publick use and benefit of the 
Inhabitants of this Province for the taking and Curing of Fish 
there. And that they Return a Plat thereof to this Court with- 
in Twelve Months for Confirmation to their Pet rs & their asso- 
sociates their heirs and assignes Respectively Provided the 
Grantees do settle the abovesaid Tract with Sixty families 
within four years from the Confirmation of the Plat each family 
to have an house of Eighteen feet square and Seven feet Stud 
at least and four acres brought too and Plowed or Stocked with 
English Grass and fitted for Mowing and also lay out three lots 
with the others one for the first Minister one for the Ministry 
and one for the School and within the said Term Settle a 
learned Orthodox Minister and Build a Convenient House for 
the Publick Worship of God And whereas Divers persons for 
whose merit this Grant is made as deceased It is further 
ordered That the Grants shall be and belong to some one of his 
male Descendants wherein the preferrence shall be Given to the 
Eldest son And further it is ordered that these persons Shares 
in this Grant shall Revert to the Province who shall not per- 
form the conditions above. 

In Council Read & Non'curr'd, 

Mass. Court Records, Dec. 14, 1784. 

* Who sold in 1736 to Archibald Stark, — Potter. 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 15 



THE GRANT AMENDED. 

John Jeffries, Esq ; brought down the Petition of ILphraim 
Hildreth and John Shipley, and others, Soldiers under the late 
Capt. William Tyng, Anno 1703, praying for a Grant of Land 
for their publico Services, being on the first of March that was 
performed on Snow Shoes, with the Vote of the House of the 
13th of Decemb. last thereon, Pass'd in Council, viz. In 
Council. December \ith, 1734. . Eead noncur'd. In April 17, 
1735. Read and re-considered, and concur'd with the Amend- 
ments, viz. after the words — Merrimack River — add — to 
extend three miles Eastward, from the said River conformable to 
the settlement of the divisional Line betwixt this Province and the 
Province of New Hampshire, made by order of King Charles the 
Second in Council in the twenty ninth Year of His Reign, Anno 
Domini 1677 — after the words — eldest son — add — to be 
admitted by a Committee of this Court, who shall take care that 
bands be given for their respective performance of the Co?iditio?is 
of this Grant to the Treasurer of this Province to the value of 
Twenty Pounds at least by each Grantee, as well as by such as 
personally appear as by those icho are the Descendants as above 
said, who may appear by their Guardian or next Friend. Ordered, 
That William Dudley, Esq ; with such as shall be joined by the 
honourable House of Representatives be a Committee for the 
purposes within mentioned. 

Sent down for Concurrence. Read and concur'd, and Col. 
Prescott and Captain Thompson are joined in the affair. 

Mass. House Journal, April 17, 1735. 

On the petition of Ephraim Hildreth and John Shipley and 
the order of the House thereon (which it was Nonconcured 
by this Board) as Entered the 14 th of D.ecem 1 ' 1734. 

In Council Read & Reconsidered and Concurr'd with the 
Amendments viz* That the Tract of Land therein Granted Ex- 
tend three miles Eastward from the River Merrimack conform- 
able to the Settlement of the Divisional line betwixt this prov- 
ince and the province of New Hampshire Made by order of 
King Charles the Second in Council in the twenty-Ninth Year 
of his Reign Anno Dom 1777, that the Grantees be Admitted 
by a Committee of this Court who shall take Care that Bonds 
be given for their respective performance of the Conditions of 



16 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

this Grant to the Treasurer of the Province for the time being 
to the value of Twenty pounds for each Grantee, as well as by 
such as personally Appear as by those who are Descendants as 
abovesaid who may Appear by their Guardian or next Friend. 
And that William Dudley Esq 1 * with such as shall be Joined by 
the Hon ble House of Representative be a Committee for the 
purpose above mentioned. 

lu the House of Represent Read & Concurr/d and Col 
Prescott & Cap* Tomson are Joined in the Affair. 

Consented to J. Belcher. 

Mass. Court Records, April 17, 1735. 



THE SURVEY. 

surveyor's report. 

Groton, May 8/9, 1735. 
Midd x Ss. 

'Tis hereby certifyed that Mess rs William Lawrence & Ben- 
jamin Parker appearing were Sworn Justly & faithfully to per- 
forrne the busieness & Duty of Chainmen in y e Survey and 
Measuring of a Tract of Land on the East Side of Merri- 
mack RiverLately Granted to the Soldiers under the Late Cap 
William Tyng Deceas d for a Township, &c. 

Before me Benj a Prescott, 

Jus 1 of Peace. 

This Plat of Land on the East side of the Merrimack river 
contains Twenty four thousand nine hundred and Sixty Acres, 
which is one thousand and nine hundred and twenty Acres more 
than the Contents of Six miles Square granted to the late Cap* 
Will m Tyng and Company that were iu the first Expedition 
against the Indians on Snowshoes, the last April Sessions of 
this Hon ble Court there being comprehended within the Plat 
two thousand One hundred and Fifty Acres granted to Several 
persons and Reserved for taking Fish &c and Upwards of One 
thousand Acres of ponds so that there is a sufficiency to make 
up the coutents of Six miles square by 1630 Acres at the least 
and the Said grant is bounded Northerly on Suncook township 
west on Merrimack River South on Litchfield & East on a line 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 



17 



parralell to the River & and three miles distant therefrom — 
being on this Side marked trees many and other Monuments, 
And is Laid Down by a Scale of 150 perch to an inch. 
March y e 25 th 1736 

P r me Joseph Blanchard Surveyor 

Suffolk ss : 

personally appearing before mee the Subscriber one of his 
majesty's Justice of the peace for the sd County Capt Joseph 
Blanchard and made Solemn Oath that in the survey of the 
township granted to the Late Capt Tyng & Company he acted 
truely & faithfully according to the best of his skill and under- 
standing. 

W m Dudley 

In the House of Representatives March 26 1736, Read and 
Ordered tliat the plat be Accepted and the Lands therein delin- 
eated & described be and hereby are confirmed to the Grantees 
mentioned in the petition of Hildreth and Shipley in behalf of 
the officers and soldiers in the company under the Command of 
the late William Tyng dec d their heirs and assigns respectively 
forever, exclusive of the former Grants within mentioned, & 
the reserved Land for the Common benefit of taking fish at 
Amaskeeg ffalls, and provided it does not exceed the quantity 
of twenty two thousand three hundred & sixty acres of Land 
besides, and interferes with no other Grant and the Grantees 
are allowed to make a new pitch of Sixteen hundred and 
Eighty Acres in the Province Lands else & return a plat thereof 
to satisfie the remainder of the Grant. 

Sent up for Concurrence J. Quincy Spk r 

In Council; Mar. 27, 1736 

Read and Concur'd J Willard Sec'y 

Consented to J. Belcher 

CONFIRMATION TO THE GRANTEES. 

A Plat containing twenty four thousand nine hundred and 
sixty acres of Land laid out by Capt Joseph Blanchard Survey 
or, and two Chainmen on Oath, to satisfy a Grant of this Court 
passed in April last to Capt. William Tyng and Company, the 
first Snow Shoe Men, against the Indian Enemy, there being 







t3 

CO 

.8- 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 19 

two thousand one hundred and fifty acres in the Plat for- 
merly granted and reserved for taking Fish, and one thousand 
acres of Ponds, so that there wants one thousand six hundred 
and eighty acres to make up the contents of six square miles, 
lying on the East side Merrimack River Northly on Suncook, 
West on Merrimack, South on Litchfield, and East on a par- 
rallel Line with the River three miles distant thereform, 
was presented for allowance. Read and Ordered, That 
the Plat be accepted, and the Lands therein delineated 
and described, be and hereby are confirmed to the Gran- 
tees mentioned in the Petition of Hildreth and Shipley in 
behalf of the Officers and Soldiers in the Company under the 
Command of Capt William Tyng, deceas'd, their heirs and 
assigns respectively for ever, and provided it does not exceed 
the quantity of twenty two thousand three hundred and sixty 
acres of Land besides and interfers with no other Grant; and 
the Grantees are allowed to make a new pitch of sixteen hun- 
dred and eighty acres in the Province Lands elsewhere, and re- 
turn a Plat thereof to satisfy the remainder of the Grant. 
Sent up for Concurrence. 

Mass. House Journal, March 26, 1736. 

A SHORTAGE OF LAND. 

A Plat of a township Six Miles Square, Granted to the 
Company formerly under the Command of Cap* William Tyng 
deced, laid out by Joseph Blancbard Survey 1 " and Chainmen on 
Oath ; lying on the East side of Merrimack River Bounded 
northly on Suncook Township, West on Merrimack River, 
South on Litchfield & East on a line parralel to the said 
River, and three miles distant from it, and bv Reason of the 
Land Reserved by the Province within said Grant the Land is 
1680 Acres Short of Six Miles Square. 

Mass. Court Records, March 27, 1736. 

TYNG TOWNSHIP BELONGED TO MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 

In the House of Represent* 1 Ordered that the New Town- 
ship lately Granted to the officers and Soldiers in the Company 
under the Command of Major William Tyng dec'ed, lying on 



20 



MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 



the East side of the Merrimack River commonly called Old 
Harry Town, be and hereby is declared & Determined to be- 
long to and hence forward to be Accounted A part of the 
County of Middlesex. 

In Council Read and Concurred 

Consented to J. Belcher. 



Mass. Court Records and House 



Journal, June 18, 1736. 



THE PISCATAQUOG GRANT. 

I The Subscriber Together with John Coleburn & Benjamin 
Parker as Chainmen have Lay'd out to the prop rs of Tyngs 




PLAN OF ADDITION TO TYNG GRANT. 

Township, so Called, or y e grantees of a Tract of Land Be- 
tween Litchfield and Suncook on y e Easterly Side Merrimack 
River, A Tract of Land Adjoining Piscataquag River Contain- 
ing One Thousand One Hundred and Sixty Eight Acres Butted 
and Bounded as by the figure herewith w ch is plan'd 
by a Scale of one hundred And Sixty perch to an inch, with a 
Small Island Containing Twelve Acres Lying in Merrimack 
River Between Crosby's Brook and Short falls so Called w ch is 
in Pursuance of a grant of one thousand Six hundred and 
Eighty Acres made to the S d Prop rs 

October 10 th 1736 Sam Cumings Surv 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 21 

Middlesex ss Dunstable December 3 th 1736. 

Personally appearing before me the Subscriber Sam 11 Cum- 
ings Surveying and measuring sixteen hundred and Eighty 
acres of Lands Granted by the Generall Court to be new 
pitched for And Lay'd out by the Prop 1 * 8 of Tyngs Township so 
Called on merrimack River they Acted faithfully 

Jurat Me Eleazar Tyng jus P 

In the House of Representatives January 14 th 1736 Read 
and Ordered That the plat be Accepted, and the Lands therein 
delineated and described be and hereby are confirmed to the 
Grantees or proprietors of the township Commonly Called 
Tyng's township, and their heirs & Assigns for Ever, provided 
the plat with the Island contain no more than One thousand six 
hundred and Eighty Acres in the whole, and does not interfere 
with any former Grant 

Sent up for Concurrence J. Quincy, Tp 

In Council Feb. 3, 1736. 

Read & Concur'd J. Willard Sec'ry 

Consented to J Belcher 

Mass. Archives, Vol. 114, p. 152. 

A Plat containing one thousand six hundred and sixty eight 
Acres of Land laid out by John Colburne Surveyor, and two 
Chainmen on Oath, to the Proprietors of Tyng's Township, so 
called, adjoining to Piscataquoiag River, together wilh a small 
Island, containing twelve Acres, lying in Merrimack River, 
lying between Crosby's Brook and Short Falls, so called, to 
satisfy a Grant of this Court to the Proprietors of the said 
Township, and the Lands theiriu delineated and described, 
together with the Island within mentioned, be and hereby 
are confirmed to the Grantees or Proprietors of the said Town- 
ship commonly called Tyng's Township, and their assigns re- 
spectively forever, provided the Plat with the Island contain no 
more than one thousand six hundred and sixty eighty Acres in 
the whole, and does not interfere with any other Grant. 
Sent up for Concurrence. 

Mass. House Journal, Jan. 14, 1736-7. 

A plat of One Thousand Six hundred and Eighty Acres of 
Land laid out on Piscataquoag River by Samuel Cummins Sur- 
ver r and Chainmen on Oath to fulfill a Grant made to the 



22 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Grantees of the Township commonly called Tyngs Township 

In the House of Represent* 1 Read and ordered that the plat 
be Accepted and the Lands therein Delineated and described be 
and hereby are Confirmed to the Grantees or Proprietors of 
the Township commonly called Tyngs Township and their heirs 
and Assigns forever provided the plat with the Island Contain 
no more than One Thousand Six hundred and Eighty Acres in 
the whole and does not Interfere with any former Grant. 

In Council Read and Concurr'd J. Belcher. 

Consented to 

Mass. Court Records, Feb. 3, 1736-7. 



GRANTS AND SETTLEMENTS OF EARLY MANCHESTER. 

The following is a chronological list of the 'grants of the ter- 
ritory up to this time : 

1719, October 20th, the Scotch-Irish, having been refused a 
grant by the Massachusetts and New Hampshire governments, 
received a deed from John Wheelwright, grandson of the Rev. 
John Wheelwright, of an area ten miles square known as Nut- 
field. — Rockingham County Records. 

1720, August 23d, settlers in the " chestnut country," who 
were opposed to the Scotch-Irish, claimed a grant from New 
Hampshire for a territory ten miles square named " Cheshire," 
afterwards changed to Chester, a tract supposed to cover the 
area sought by their rivals. 

1722, in June, the Nutfield colony was successful in obtain- 
ing a grant from Gov. Shute of New Hampshire, for a tract 
ten miles square in the name of Londonderry, and was supposed 
to hold the fishing grounds of Amoskeag, but did not. 

1729, settlers from Massachusetts began to gather about 
Amoskeag Falls to the uneasiness of the Nutfield colony. 1 



1 According: to Potter the earliest settlement on the Merrimack in what is now 
New Hampshire territory w;is m lie near the mouth of Salmon Brook in that part 
of Old Dunstable now Na>hua. Farmers' Monthly Visitor, Vol XII, p. 274. 

The grant for this settlement must Imve been ihai made to John Whitinsr about 
1660. Capt. Thomas Wheeler and his son Lieut. Joseph Wheeb-r, wi h others, 
owned farms here soon after. John Blanehard, an ancestor of * ol. Joseph Blanch- 
ard. Proprietors' Clerk of Tyng Township, titled a little below this place about 
that time. See Mass. Records, and Fox's History of Dunstable. 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 23 

1733, John McNiel made the first permanent settlement near 
the Amoskeag Falls, and the name of Harry town soon after 
appeared. 

1734, April 17th, the Masschusetts legislature granted the 
seven townships known as the Narragansett Grants, No. IV, 
constituting the Goffstown grant and including Amoskeag, and 
No. V that of Bedford including Piscataquog. — Massachu- 
setts Colonial Journals. 

1735, April 18th, the Massachusetts legislature granted to 
Major Ephraim Hildreth and others the territory known as 
Tyng ToivytsJu'p, comprising u Harrytown " and enough joining 
land to make a " respectable town." 

In 1662 Passaconnaway petitioned to the General Court of 
Massachusetts for a grant of land along the Merrimack for 
himself and people, the following being a copy of the document 
that is still sacredly preserved in the archives of that state : 

To the hon rd Endicott John Esq r Gov : together with the rest 
of the hon rd Generall court now assembled in Boston, the peti- 
tion of Papisseconnewa in the behalfe of him selfe, as also of 
many other indians who were for a longe- time themselves and 
their progenitors seated upon a tract of land named Noticot, 1 
and is now in possession of Mr. William Brenton of Rode Hand 
marchante ; and is now confirmed to the said Mr. Brenton to 
him his heirs & assigns according to the lawes of this Jurisdic- 
diction, by reason of which tract of land being taken as afore- 
saide, & throwing your poor petitioner with many others in an 
unsettled condition, & must be forced in a short time to remove 
to some other place, the humble request of y r poor petitioner 
is that this hon rd Court would please to grant unto us a parcel 
of land for our comfortable situation, to be stated for our en- 
joyment, as also for the comfort of those after us : as also that 
this hon rd court would please to take into your serious and 
pious consideration the condition and also the request of you*.* 
poor suppliantes, & to appoint two or three persons as a com- 
mittee to assist the same sum one or two indians to view & 

1 The intervale portions of Litchfield (Indian Naticook — first grant, 1656, 
Brenton's Farm.) Merrimack, Hudson, Nashua were inhabited and cultivated by 
a branch or family of the Penacooks called sometimes Naticooks. (Fox'o History 
of Dunstable, p. 220. 



24 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

determine on some place and to lay out y e same. Not further 
to trouble this hon rd assembly, humbly craving an expected an- 
swer this present session, I shall still remain y e Humble Ser- 
vant whom y e shall commande. 

Papisseconewa. 
Boston: 9 3 mo. 1662. 

In ans r to this petition the magistrates' judge meete to Graunt 
unto Papisseconneway and his men or Associates about Natti- 
cott above Mr.Brentons land where it is free a mile & a halfe 
on either side in length provided he nor they doe not alienate any 
part of this Graunt without leave and license from this court 
first obtained if their brethren the deputys consent thereto. 

9 may, 1662. Edward Rawson. 

consented to by the deputyes. 

William Torrey, clerc. 

According to the order of the Hon rd Generall Court, ther is 
laid -out unto the indians, papisseconeway & his Associates, the 
inhabitants of Naticott, three miles square, or so much (rather) 
as contains it in the figure of a romboide upon merrimack riv r 
beginning at the head of Mr. Brintons land at Naticott, on the 
east side of the riv 1 * , & then it joyneth to his line, which lines 
runnes half against North- ward of the East, it lyeth one mile & 
a halfe wide on each side of y e Riv r and some what better, and 
runnes three miles up the Riv 1 " ; the Northern line on the east 
side of the Riv r is bounded by a brook (called by y e indians) 
Suskayquetuck, right against the falls in the riv r Pokehuous. 
the end lines on both side of the riv r are paralelle ; the side 
line on the east side of the riv r runnes halfe a pointe eastward 
of the No : No : east and the side line on the west side of the 
riv r runnes Northeast and by North, all of which is sufficiently 
bounded and marked with, also ther is tw T o smale islands in 
the Riv r part of which, the lower end line cuts crosse, one of 
which Papisseconeway have lived upon & planted a long time 
& a smale patch of intervaile land, on the west side of the Riv r 
anent and a little below y e Islands, by estemation about forty 
acres, which joyneth to their land and to Sauhegon Riv r which 
the indians have planted (much of it) a long time, & consider- 
ing there is very little good land in that which is Now laid out 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 25 

unto them, the indians do earnestly request this Hon r(i Court 
to grant these two smale islands & y e patch of intervaile, as it 
is bounded by y e Hills. This land was laid out 27. 3 mo. 1663. 
By John Parks & Jonathan Danforth Surveyors. 

This was done by us and at our ch r s e wholly, at the request 
of the indians. It was important, and as we are informed by 
the order of this Hon rd Generall court (if our services be ac- 
ceptable) that that they should take order we made be com- 
pensted for the same. So shall we remain your humble ser- 
vants as Before- 

The bill for the expenses of surveying amounted to almost 
eleven pounds, which was allowed. That closed the record of 
the first grant of land made in what now constitutes the terrtory 
of Manchester, and it was made to one whose people had pos- 
sessed it as their fishing, hunting and planting grounds for un- 
numbered years. Naticott was one of the forms of the In- 
dian name of the land now embraced in Litchfield, the south- 
ern boundary of this grant being near the northern line of that 
town even to the present di?y, and extended three miles up the 
river. There are no records to show that this grant was of 
any benefit to Papisseconeway and his associates. 



26 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

CHAPTER III. 
PROPRIETORS' RECORDS OF TYNG TOWNSHIP. 

WARNING FOR THE FIRST MEETING. 1 

Notification is hereby given to the grantees of the tract of 
Land between Suncook township & Litchfield on the east side 
of the merrimack river that they Assemble at the house of 
Coll° Jonas Clark of Chelmsford on the 20 th of may Next by 
Ten o'clock forenoon In Order that they make out their title 
thereto & that thay were in the march under Capt. Tyng and 
Come prepared to Enter into Bonds to fullfill the terms of the 
Grant accordingly. 

W m Dudley by Order of y e Com te3 

Fourteen days before the day of the meeting above men- 
tioned hereof fail not and have you this Warrant with y e do- 
ing herein. At the meeting aboved Given under my hand & 
Seal in S d County the Twenty fifth day of April in the eighth 
year of his Majesties Reign Anno Dom 1735 

Benj a Prescott Justice of peace 

Mid 1 Ss May the 20th 1735. 

Pursuant to the within written Warrant I the Subscribers 
have notified and warned the grantees and Proprs within men- 
tioned to meet at the time and place As was herein Directed. 

Atts John Shepley 

FIRST MEETING OF THE GRANTEES. 

At a meeting of the Grantees and propr 8 of a tract of land 
Granted for a township to the soldiers under the command of 
the late Capt W m Tyng Dec'd Joyning to the easterly side of 
of merrimack River Between Litehfield and Suncook or Love- 



1 The subject titles, given here for the convenience of the reader, are not 
found In the original book of records. 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 



27 



well's town (so called) at the house of Coll Jonas Clark in 
Chelmsford on the 2d of may 1735 

. The Hon ble William Dudley Esq r was unanimously chosen 
moderator. 

Then Voted and Chose Joseph Blanchard Prop rs Clerk. 

Then the following List was delivd to the Clerk by the Gen 11 
Courts Com tee viz. The Hon ble W m Dudley Benj a Pres- 
cott, Esq r and Captain Benj a Thompson which is a Followeth 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM TYNO'S SNOW SHOE MEN. 

A List of the Souldiers that went out under the Com'and of 
Captain W m Tyng to Winepiscocheag the year 1703 



Admitted 

John Shepley Joseph Parker 

Nathaniel Woods Joseph Blanchard 
Thomas Lund William Whitney 

Joseph Perham Joseph Butterfield 

John Spalding Jun (by) Sam 1 Spalding 
William Longley Eben r Spalding 
Joseph Lakin Nath 11 Blood 

Jonathan Page Nathaniel Butterfield 

Johu Hunt ' Jona th Hill 

Peter Talbird (by) G. Talbird 
Benony Perham : Sam 1 Eleazer Parker 
Josiah Richardson Tho s Tarble 
James Blanchard Henry Farwell 
John Richardson Sam 1 Woods' 
Sam 1 Chamberlain Stephen Peirce 
Paul Fletcher 



Richard Warner 
John Cumings 
John Longley 
John Spalding 
Henry Spalding 
Sam 1 Davis 
John Holdin 
Jonathan Butterfield 
Jonathan Parker : 

Thomas 1 
Stephen Keyes 
Thomas Cumings 
Jonathan Richardson 
Joseph Guilson 
Ephraim Hildreth 
Timothy Spalding. 



The Above Named persons were all Admitted And gave 
Bond (Except W m Whitney) into the grant made to the Com- 
pany under Cap* William f yng the 20 th & 21 st of May 1735 



1 Preceding name signed by this person, whose surname was the same as the 
other- 



28 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

To the Quality of each Prespective Lott That such persons 
having equal Right may have Lands equal in value in the 
Judgment of the Com tee 

Also Voted and agreed that when theLotts are so coupled that 
Lotts be made and drawn according to such Coupling w th one 
Lott to each share or Right after the the three publick lotts is 
first Sett of if they shall at Such Drawing Think convenient to 
Sett off y e s d publick lots. 

Also Voted and agreed that the Committee for Laying out 
the s d Lands shall also lay out in the most Sutable place a 
meeting house place Buring place and training field of Such 
Quantity such as they shall judge convenient. 

Also Voted and agreed that the s d Com tee be Desired and 
directed to Lay out a Convenient Road by hyway from Litch- 
field to Suncook or Lovel's Town (so called) As also to leave 
so much Lands as they may think necessary to make good the 
Damages persons shall sustain by haveing publick Roads here- 
after Lay d out thro their Lotts. 

Also Voted and agreed that the s d Com tee Preserve a Sutable 
place for mills and so much Lauds as may by them be Judged 
necesary for encouragement to build the same or more if they 
think it necessary, for the Prop rs for Timber &c or any other 
Public use. 

Also Voted and agreed that whereas Joseph Blanchard Major 
Eph m Kildreth Cap 4 John Shepley Cap* Saml Chamberlain & 
Cap* JosiahRichardson were chosen and appointed a Com tee for 
the laying out eighty acres of Land to each prop r or grantee in 
the afores d Township. That they be and hereby are fully Im- 
powered and Directed to Divide Lay out and Couple the Lotts 
Lay out hyways, meeting house place Burying place Training 
field and Mill place Agreeable to the aforewritten votes ordered 
and directed to be done by the Com tee 

Then it was proposed to know the minds of y e Prop rs 
whether they would make any addition to the s d Com tee , it 
passed in the Negative ; and thereupon Voted and Ordered that 
the Com tee afores d Imploy & Improve Such Surveyor or Sur- 
veyors and Chainmen as they shall think convenient for the do 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 29 

ing and Effecting the S d work at the Cost and Charge of ye 
Prop rs and that the work be done with all convenient Speed 
Also Voted that Mess John Cumiugs John Richardson Tho s 
Tarble Josiah Richardson and William Stickney be Desired to 
Enquire into the Accts of Major Hildreth and Captain Shepley 
their expense of obtaining y e Grant &c. 

Pursuant to the request of five of the prop s of the township 
granted to the Late Wm m Tyng and their Associates on y e east 
side of rnerrimack River made to me the Subscriber for the call- 
ing of a meetiug of the Prop rs of said township at the house of 
Cap t Tho s Read at Westford Innholder on thursday the twenth 
day of June next at nine of the Clock forenoon. 



THE WARRANT. 

THESE ARE THEREFORE to give notice to the prop ra of 
Said township that they convein and meet at the time and place 
afore sd 

1 st To here the Report of the Committea appointed to De- 
vide and Lott out the township &c And accept thereof 

2 d] y To hear Consider and allow the Accompts of any Per- 
sons to whome the prop rs are justly Indebted & Order pay- 
ment thereof 

3 dl y To Receive a Sutable Sum of money for that purpose 
or any other publick use that may be tho't convenient 

4thiy To give Liberty for Jon a Perham to take his Right or 
Share of S d township in Those Lands he has boxed the pine 
trees on ; or to Consider and Abate off of y e money He's 
oblidged to pay to the Com tee Appointed by the prop rs to take 
Care of the Same 

5thiy To Agree upon some proper method for Drawing of the 
Lotts iu said Township and report y e Same and Order that 
proper record be made thereof 

gthiy Xo take Some proper measures for Returning a plan 



SO MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

of the Sixteen Hundsed acres of Land Last granted to the S d 
Prop rs 

7thiy To Agree where meetings shall be held for the future 

8tMy xo Agree upon and Order that of y e Original Prop rd 
or grantees be Equal in time and money Expended in Obtain- 
ing the Grant of y e T. Township 

9thiy To Agree upon Some proper Rules and Orders for 
Laying out the town Roads or highways in the said township 
And do any Thing else necessary for bringing forward the Set- 
tlement of the S d Town 

Dunstable may the 18 th 1736 

Joseph Blanchard 

prop rs Cler. 

The aforewritten Notification was posted in the Several 
Towns agreeable to the vote for calling a meeting. 

J. Blanchard Prop rs Cler 

A true Copy Exam d & entered 

P r J Blanchard 

P r Cler 

MEETING AT WESTFORD. 

Att a meeting of the Prop 1 " 8 of the New plantation or Town- 
ship Lately granted unto the Company or under the Command 
of the Late Capt William Tyng and their Associates, at the 
house of Cap 1 Thomas Reads Innholder in West ford on Thurs- 
day the 40 th day of June 1736. 

Voted and Chose M r Joseph Blanchard Moderator. 

The Com tee who were appointed to Lay out the Township 
into Lotts Reported that they had attended that Service and 
had Layd out and Coupled the same to the Sixty three Equal 
Shares as Directed Laying four Lotts to Each Share besides y e 
Meadow Lotts on Great Cohas which were Added to those lotts 
which most Needed the same and had well Marked Bounded 
and Numbered the Same and also a lott of the Contents of 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 31 

one hundred and Seventeen Acres on the Brook Called Little 
Cohas Brook in the Second Range of Lotts as P r plan, for a 
Mill Lott which is not Coupled amongst the rest — a plan and 
table whereof was Exhibited to the Prop s and also had run out 
and marked with Care the east Line of the township so as to 
keep Exact three miles & no more from each and every part of 
Merrimack River. 

Which was voted to be Accepted and that they should be 
paid for that service by the prop rs 

Also voted that the Com tee who Layd out the lotts be De- 
sired to fit and prepare them to draw & that W m Hall be 
Joyued in the afair. 

Also Voted that there be a Com tee appointed to Examine the 
acc os of any person who was at Expence in either money or time 
in Obtaining the Grant of the township and report thereon to 
the Prop rs as soon as maybe, what Each Originall Grantee Ex- 
clusive of y e Associates has so expended in order that all may 
be made Equals. 

Voted and Chose Capt William Lawrence Capt Thos Tarble 
& Mr. William Stickney for that service. 

Then voted that the meeting be adjourned till tomorrow 
morning eight of the Clock and adjoined accordingly. 

At y e House of Mr. Tho s Reads met again according to the 
S d adjoinment. 

Then after Reading Severall Acc os Voted that Jonas Clark 
Esq r the Reverend M r Willard Hall Mess rs W m Tarble, Nathan 
Blodget & and John Richardson be chosen and appointed a 
Com tee to Examine the Casting & vouchers of those Acompts 
what in their Judgments ought to be paid. 

Then Jonas Clark Esq r in y e behalf of y e S d Com tse Reported 
on the Several acc os That there ought to be paid to the Several 
persons whose accompts were Committed to them by way of 
Discharges the Same the Sums hereafter mentioned and set 
against each persons Name an no more 



32 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 



To Eph r Hildreth Esq r - 

To Cap 1 Josiah Richardson 

To Cap* William Lawrence 

To Cap* Thos Tarble - 

To Cap* Sheple 

To M r Benj n Parker .... 

To Caleb Blodget 

To Samuel Cummings Surveyor 

To J McNiel( ?) & James Cummings as Survey 1 36 
ditto as Chainmen 

To Eph m Hildreth Jun r as Chainman 
To Jon a Butterfield ditto 

To Jon a Chamberlain ditto 

To John Mash ditto 

To Nath le Butterfield Jun r ditto 
To W m Neehold ditto 

To Cymon Powers ditto 

To Mr Joseph Butterfield ditto 
To Joseph Buttler ditto 

To Zach h Hildreth ditto 

To Jon a Perham 

Which Report was accepted and the Several accompts afore- 
mentioned allowed & voted that the Same Should be paid out 
of y e Prop 1 ' 8 Treasy 

The M r John Cummings from the Com tee appointed the 8 th of 
Sept last to enquire into the acct of Eph™ Hildreth & Cap* John 
Sheple of their time and expence in obtaining the Grant of the 
township Reported that they had Examined the Acc ts find Due 
to Eph m Hildreth Esq r the Sum of £63 6s 4p (sixty three 
pounds six shillings four pence) And due to Cap* John Sheple 
the Sum of £63 6s 5p (Sixty three pounds six shillings five 
pence). 



£ 


s 


P 


51 


8 





48 


8 





8 


1 


6 


3 


23 





3 








2 


10 





2 


10 





41 


16 





36 


17 





10 


11 





5 


2 





9 


9 


3 


9 


18 





16 


9 





6 








17 


1 





7 


14 





11 


6 





5 


8 





5 


8 








14 






TYNG TOWNSHIV. 



33 



j^,W ch they are of opinion Ought to be paid them by this Pro- 
priety, which was Accepted and Allowed and voted that the 
Same be paid out of the treas r y. 

Then an acc° of Joseph Blanchard was offered and read, for 
Service done Laying out the township and returning a plan 
thereof to the Gen 11 Court in the Whole amounting to forty nine 
pounds fifteen Shillings, which was Accepted and Allowed and 
voted that the Same be paid out of the treas x T. 

Then Cap* William Lawrence from the Com tee appointed this 
meeting to examine into the acc ts of any person who was at ex- 
pence in either money or time in obtaining the Grant of y e 
Township reported that they had attended that Service, and 
are of Opinion that the Sums in the following List Ought to be 
Allowed to each persons as set against his Name Out of the 
treas r y or Discounted from their Rates — 

Which is as followeth. 



John Sheple 


£4 


4 





Jonathan Parker by 


2 


10 





Joseph Parker 


4 


15 





Thomas 


Tho 8 Lund 


2 


13 





Peter Talbirt by 


3 


4 





Richard Warner 


2 


18 





George 


W m Whitney 


1 


5 





Stephen Keys 


1 


7 





Nath le Wood 


1 


18 





Benony Perham 


2 


2 





Joseph Blanchard 


2 


4 





Eleazer Parker 


2 


3 





John Cummings 


4 


9 





Thomas Cummings 


2 


9 





John Longley 


4 


5 





Josiah Richardson 


3 


4 





Joseph Perham 


1 


10 





Thomas Tarble 


4 


15 





Joseph Butterfield 





19 





Jonathan Richardson 1 


7 





John Spalding 


1 


5 





James Blanchard 


2 


1 





John Spalding Jun 1 


1 


19 





Henry Farwell 


1 


11 





Henry Spalding 


1 


18 





Joseph Guilson 


4 


8 





Will m Longley 


4 


8 





John Richardson 


4 


10 





Joseph Laking 


1 


14 





Samuel Woods 


3 


15 





Xath le Blood 


1 


11 





Eph m Hildreth 


3 


5 





John Holding 


1 


14 





Samuel Chamberlin 


3 


13 





Jonathan Page 


3 


7 





Stephen Peirce 


3 


1 





Nathaniel Butterfield 4 


15 





Timothy Spalding 


2 


19 





Jonathan Butterfield 


5 





Paul Fletcher 


3 


7 






The Historic Quarterly, Manchester, N. H., June, 1901. 
Vol. II, No. 2. 



34 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Which Report was accepted & voted that each person here 
Set down be Discounted for so much of y e Charges arisen on 
the respective Rights. 

Then Voted that the meeting be Adjourned to the twenty 
Second day of this Instant June & to meet again at this Place at 
nine of the Clock in the forenoon And the meeting was accord- 
ingly Adjourned to the S d time and place 

Att a meeting of the Prop rs and grantees of y e Township 
Latly granted unto the Company under the Comand of the 
late Cap 1 William Tyng Dec d And their Associates Held by 
Adjournment from ye (11) th day of June Curr* to this 2 2 d 
day of June. 1736 

Mett and Voted that the Charges in Petitioning and Expences 
in Order to Obtain the grant of y e township &c. until the meet- 
ing at Coll Clark's (after the money be paid by the Asso- 
ciates for their admittance be Deducted) be paid by the Peti- 
tioners or Originall Grantees in Equal Proportion, & that those 
men who have paid more than their Equal part therof be al- 
lowed so much in advance as they have paid Over, and those 
who have not paid their Equal Part of Such Charge Shall be 
Charged with the Sum they are behind of their Proportion 
upon drawing their Lotts and lhat Each Associate be on Equal 
Proportion of the Charge that has Arisen Since their Admit- 
tance with each of the other prop 1 ' 3 . And that each proprietor 
pay down their part of Charge To the Clerk before that they 
be Admitted to draw Their respective Lotts. 

And in Order to know how much is necessary to be Raised 
on each Right, Voted that Benj a Prescott Esq. M r Hall Cap 4 
Chamberlin Capt Blodget and M r William Tarble be a Com tee 
Desired to Enquire how much money has been granted, and 
how much is necessary to be raised, and report theron as Soon 
as possible. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE. 

Coll Prescott from the Com tee afores d Reported (in the 
words following,) 

That the Com tee are of Opinion that each of the Original 
Prop 1 ' 8 pay upon drawing their lotts the Sum of nine pounds 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 35 

fourteen Shillings and three pence Including the sum advanced 
and Allowed by the Prop 18 to each of Such Original Prop 1 ' 3 ad- 
mitted Associate pay the sum of five pounds Sixteen Shillings 
and nine pence, which being paid Together with Eighty eight 
pounds by those admitted associates and Sixty two pounds Due 
from Tho 8 Worthley and Jonathan Perham will Leave Sixty two 
pounds Six shillings and Sixpence in the Treas r hands after all 
acct os allowed and voted by the prop rs are Discharged and paid 

Which Report was accepted and it was voted that the prop rs 
pay the respective Sums to the Treas r according to the afore- 
written Report & and then that they be admitted to Draw their 
Lotts in Such a manner as shall be agreed on. 

Then Voted that the Lotts be put into One hatt and the names 
of the prop rs into another. And that M r Thomas Kidder Mr. 
Sampson Spalding be desired to Draw them. One to Draw The 
Name and the Other to draw the Lott and as they are Succes- 
sively Drawn the Clerk to enter the same to Such prop rs as are 
so Drawn. 

Also Voted that the tract of Land Left and reserved by the 
Q om tee f or a Meeting house place a training field & Burrying 
place Containing thirty acres Lying the north side of great 
Cohass against the Lotts N° 3 and Number 4 be appropriated 
to that use and that the Lot No 4 in the S (l Third Range North 
of Cohass with the Lotts Coupled to the Same be appropriated 
for the first Settled Minister in y e s d Township And the 
Lott N° 3 in the S d Third Range for the Ministry and the Lotts 
that are coupled therewith. The remainder to be Drawn As 
afore 8d . 

ASSIGNMENT OF LOTS. llOliu^Jl 

Which being done by the s d Mess rs Kidder & Spalding 
agreable to vote afores d are as Followeth 

The first Collum on the left Hand Contains the Number in 
Course of Drawing the lotts, the Second Contains the Number 
of the lot, the third Contains the N° of the Range the lot is in 
the fourth Contains the N° of y e Lott, y e fifth Contains the N° 
of the Range, the Sixth Contains the N° of the lot, the Seventh 
the N° of the Range, the eighth Contains the Number of y e Lot, 
y e ninth Contains the N° of range, the tenth Contains the N° 
of y e Meadow Lotts. which Lyeth on Great Cohass 



36 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 





1. 2. 


3. 4. 


5. 6. 


7. 8. 9. 


10 




u 


o 


6 


<o <u 


Is 

o 




«M " 


bo 


bo 


bo bo 


'C 






c +■* 


a +s 


fl +■= c 


eS 




o o 


cS o 


eS o 


cj o ee 


O) 




X A 


« Hi 


M A 


« Hi M 


a 


Joseph Butterfield 


1 6 


1 12 


4 63 


2 60 4 


2 


Cap* Henry Earwell 


2 7 


1 18 


4 62 


2 8n 3 


3 


John Richardson 


3 9 


1 52 


2 10 


4 29 3 


4 


Capt William Lawrence 


4 10 


1 53 


2 7 


4 30 3 


5 


Nathaniel Woods 


5 12 


1 llN 


3 1 


4 47 3 


— 


Jona th Sheple & ) 
Zach r y Hildreth j 


6 16 


1 15n 


3 6 


4 59 4 


6 


The Hon 1 W m Dudley Esq 1 ' 7 1 7 


1 13n 


3 19 


4 68 4 


7 


Jonathan Hartwell 


8 2n 


1 37 


2 5n 


3 69 4 


— 


Jonathan Richardson 


9 In 


' 1 36 


2 14n 


3 77 4 


— 


Jonas Clark Esq 1 * 


10 3 


1 11 


4 23n 


3 70 4 


8 


Eben r Spalding 


11 2 


1 1 


1 25 


3 71 4 


9 


Thomas Lund 


12 7 


2 50 


2 41 


3 55 4 


— 


Andrew Belcher Esq 1 ' 


13 6 


2 12 


3 42 


3 56 4 


— 


Mess rs Tho s Parker & ) 
W m Read j 


14 5 


2 13 


3 40 


3 57 4 


10 


Jonathan Page 


15 12 


2 4 


3 6n 


1 58 4 


— 


Joseph Guilson 


16 13 


2 3 


3 13n 


1 76 4 


— 


Richard Warner 


17 15 


2 16 


3 50 


4 25 2 


— 


Stephen Kyes 


18 16 


2 17 


3 51 


4 23 2 


— 


Joseph Blanchard 


19 24 


2 38 


4 20n 


3 75 4 


— 


Thomas Cumings 


20 30 


2 39 


4 21n 


3 25 4 


— 


William Whitney 


21 34 


2 19 


2 22n 


3 63 4 


— 


Timothy Spalding 


22 35 


2 18 


2 28 


3 74 4 


— 


Samuel Woods 


23 4 


2 3 


2 66 


4 31 3 


— 


Eleazer Tyng Esq 1 ' 


24 1 


2 2 


2 65 


4 32 3 


— 


Nathaniel Butterfield 


25 21 


2 49 


2 67 


4 36 3 


— 


The School Lott 


26 22 


2 47 


4 33 


3 38 2 




Tho s Tarble 


27 10 


3 48 


4 llN 


1 46 3 




Benj a Prescott Esq 1 ' 


28 8 


3 2 


4 10n 


1 45 3 




Peter Talbirt 


29 6 


3 3 


4 14n 


1 44 3 




Josiah Richardson 


30 20 


3 8 


4 15n 


1 43 3 


16 


John Col burn 


31 21 


3 5 


4 14n 


1 39 3 




Jonath n Butterfield 


32 19 


3 4 


4 48 


2 40 4 




Paul Fletcher 


33 16 


3 14 


2 34 


3 58 4 







TYNG TOWNSHIP. 




37 




1. 2. 


3. 4. 


5. 6. 


7. 8. 9. 10 




a, 
o 


a> 


a> 






O W 


60 


fee 


bC bfl "5 






a -w 


a -« 


c *=■ o S5 




o o 


a o 


oS o 


c3 O CS « 




% 4 


05 A 


M A 


« ij E a 


Stephen Peirce 


34 2 


3 26 


2 27 


2 41 4 — 


Samuel Chamberliu 


35 5 


3 51 


2 12n 


1 31 4 — 


Tho s Colburn 


36 7 


3 19 


1 52 


4 64 2 — 


Jonathan Hill 


37 8 


3 18 


1 53 


4 61 2 — 


Joseph Parker 


38 9n 


3 23 


1 24 


3 30 4 - 


John Chandler 


39 10n 


3 8 


2 54 


4 39 2 — 


Eleazer Parker 


40 16n 


3 17 


2 35 


3 20 4 12 


Joseph Laken 


41 17n 


3 5 


1 43 


2 21 4 — 


Benj a Thomson 


42 18n 


3 16n 


1 2n 


3 73 4 — 


John Sheple 


43 19n 


3 17n 


1 54 


2 72 4- 


John Spalding Jun 1 ' 


44 22 


3 9n 


1 26 


3 29 4 — 


Eph m Hildreth Esq r 


45 11 


3 3n 


1 27 


3 28 4- 


Nath le Blood 


46 7n 


3 49 


4 31 


2 40 2 — 


Joseph Perham 


47 9 


4 22 


1 58 


2 41 2 1 


John Hunt 


48 13 


4 20 


2 32 


2 6 3 — 


John Cumings 


49 14 


4 2n 


3 33 


2 37 3 — 


John Holding 


50 15 


4 4n 


1 43 


4 23 3 — 


Tho 8 Tarble Associate 


51 16 


4 7n 


1 60 


2 42 4 - 


Caleb Blodget 


52 17 


4 21 


1 59 


2 27 4 — 


John Longley 


53 32 


4 8n 


1 64 


3 24 4 17 


Samuel Davis 


54 33 


4 5n 


1 56 


2 26 4 18 


James Blanchard 


55 34 


4 4 


1 57 


2 55 4 19 


Will m Longley 


56 35 


4 8 


1 28 


2 56 4 14 


Henry Spalding 


57 36 


4 11 


1 29 


2 57 4 20 


John Tyng 


58 37 


4 13 


1 44 


2 58 4 21 


Benony Perham 


59 45 


4 14 


1 45 


2 59 4 22 


Jon a by Tho s Parker 


60 46 


4 15 


1 46 


2 60 4- 


John Spalding 


61 1 


3 20 


1 47 


2 44 4 11 


Lott for the Minister 


62 3n 


3 9 


2 61 


4 22 4 15 


Lot for the Ministry 


63 4n 


3 20 


2 62 


4 23 4 — 



38 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Then On a motion of William Laking Shewing that he had 
Advanced the Sum of one pound Sixteen Shillings to Carry on 
y e Petition at Court, praying it might be repaid him 

Voted that the Treas r pay to the S d Will m Laking the Said 
Sum of One pound Sixteen Shillings Out of the treas 1 * 

Also on a motion of M r Jon a Hartwell Shewing that he had 
advanced £115 for the Same use 

Voted that the treas 1 * pay y e S d Sum of one pound fifteen 
Shillings. To the S d Hartwell out of the treas 1 * 

Also on a motion of Cap 1 Caleb Blodget 

praying that they would further Con- 
sider his Acco m P fc wherin he Charged 

The propy D 1 ' for time and Expences 

at Boston Obtaining the grant of the 

township £4 10 

Also for Laying Out the Grant of 1680 
Acres made to this Propy three days 

him Self and a Surveyor @ 10s ^ day 

each & Two Chainmen @ 6s ^ day 
each 4 16 



Total 9 6 

Voted that the Said Sum of nine pounds Six Shillings be 
paid the S d Cap* Blodget by the propy Treas r 

Also an Acc° of Cap 1 Samuel Chamberlain for money 
and time Expended in Obtaining the Grant of the Town- 
ship £5 9 
To 4 days Laying Out the Township 2 8 






Total 7 17 

Voted that the Said Sum of Seven pounds Seventeen Shil- 
lings be paid To the S d Cap* Chamberlain by The treas r 

And Further allowed to Cap* John Sheple £0 7 6 for Draw- 
ing a Wan 4 & posting y e first propy meeting 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 39 

Also an acco m P l of Cap 1 Read wherin be Chargeth the 

prop 1 ' 3 Debter to two days ineasureing Cross the township (w, 

6s ^ day £0 12 

To Entertaining the Coin tee Sep 1 10 th 1735 when 

AdjustiDg the acc° with Major Hildreth & 

Cap* Sheple 2 6 1 



Total 2 18 1 

Also Charges for the Entertainment of 

the Society at the first meeting before 

this adjournment 27 18 10 

Also Charges for the present Entertainment 26 5 10 



Which in the whole Amounts to 57 2 9 

Voted that the Said Sum of fifty Seven pounds two Shil- 
lings and nine pence be paid To the Said Cap 1 Read Out of 
y e PropF treas r r 

Then on a motion made and Seconded by Several of the 
Prop rs voted that Benj a Prescot Esq r and Cap Benj a Tomp- 
son Esq r be Desired to return a Plan of the 1680 Acres as 
Lay'd Out by Major Hildreth & Cap 1 Richardson Provided 
y e plot Exhibited to the Court by Cap 1 Blodget be not Ac- 
cepted. Also Voted that provided the S d Cap 1 Blodgets plan 
be Accepted that Cap* Joseph Blanchard Mess 1-3 Benj a Parker 
& John Colburn be Desired to View y e J 680 Acres Lay'd 
Out by Cap 1 Blodget to See if it will do to Accept And that 
they report at the next meeting 

Pursuant To The request of a Sufficient Number of the 
prop rs , of Tyng Township so Called 

These are to Give Notice to the prop rs of the S d Township 
that they Convene and meet at the House of M r Thomas Har- 
wood in Dunstable Inholder On the Second Day of August 
next at ten of the Clock in the forenoon then and there first to 
hear the Accounts of any Person to whome the Prop rs are Just- 
ly Indebted and Order payment therof. 

2<iiy To Choose & Impower Proper Persons To Eject any 
Persons out of Possession who have unlawfully Entered on 



40 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

any Lands in the S d Township before or Since the Same was 
granted and give them Such Instructions as may be tho* proper 

3diy To h ear the report of y e Com tee appointed to view the 
1680 Acres in June last. 

4 } y to Raise Such Sum or Sums of money as may be 
tho 1 necessary, to pay the prop rs Just Debts and Carry on 
any necessary affair for the prop rs 

5 To Choose a Collector and assessors to Assess and Col- 
lect the Same— Dated at Dunstable July y e 10 th 1736. 

JOSEPH BLANCHARD Prop 18 Cler 

The aforewritten Notification was posted Agreable to y e vote 
for Calling Meetings att s 

JOSEPH BLANCHARD Prop rs Cler 



COMMITTEE TO SUSTAIN CLAIMS CHOSEN. REPORT OF COMMITTEE 
IN REGARD TO THE DISPUTED 1680 ACRES OF LAND. 

Att a meeting of the Prop rs of Tyng Township so called at 
the House of M r Thomas Harwood Inholder, at Dunstable, on 
the second day of August, 1736 : 

Voted and Chose Benj a Prescott, Esq 1 ' ., Moderator. 

Also Voted that Cap* Josiah Richardson Mess rs Benj a Parker 
& Will m Tarble be Chosen and appointed a Com tee and fully 
Impowered to Sue and Prosecute any or every person in Eject- 
ment that were Inhabitating on any of y e Lands in the S d Town- 
ship before the division thereof and Continue so to be On Condi- 
tion that the Owner of the Lott will first make over and Oblidge 
himself to render all Damages (that shall be recovered) to the 
Propty and that the Com tee be further Directed to take Security 
of the Owner of the lotts as afores d to render So much to the 
prop*? as the lott or Lotts is benefitted by such Improvements 
and the Charges that shall arise theron to be born by the 
prop'y and that the Comittee afore d be Joyntly & Severally Im- 
powered to act in all the affair of y e foregoing vote Against 
which vote Nicholass Sprague & Thomas Parker of Chelms- 
ford entered their Desents. 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 41 

The Com tee appointed the 22 d of Jane last to view y e 1680 
acres viz. Benj a Parker from the Com tee Reported That they had 
attended that Service and are of the opinion that the Land lay'd 
out by Cap 1 Blodget for that use is mean and Better may be 
had Which Report was accepted and voted that an Other Place 
be Look't out for that use. And the S d Com tee pray that they 
may be allowed for their Trouble as followeth. 

Benj a p ar ker for 4 days @ 10s. f day - - - £2 

John Colburn for 4 clays @ 10s f day - - - 2 

Samuel Cumings for 4 days @ 12s. fJ day -2 8 
Further Charges for one Journey to Chelmsford 

and Westford to post notifications @ 10s 10 
Benj a Parker Further Charges for posting Notifi- 
cation at Groton 30 



Which in the whole amounts to ----710 

Which account was allowed and accepted & Ordered that the 
prop 1 ' 8 Clerk and treas r pay the Same. 

Then Voted that Cap* William Lawrence be Joyned to the 
Com tee for Suing &c. Chosen at this Meeting. 

Also Voted that Cap* Joseph Blanchard Clerk of this Propri- 
ety be allowed for his Service as Followeth for — Notification to 
be posted for the meeting @ three shillings each, for Recording 
of Notifications at Is 6d ^ page, for fraiming and Recording 
Prop rs votes at three Shillings ^ page Reckning at the rate of 
Lawfull pages. And that He be allowed and paid by the Prop rs 
his reasonable Demands for his trouble in serving as Treas r 
and also that he be Directed to Record the whole of the lotts in 
a Book for the prop rs and that he be allowed for the same five 
Shillings for Each Right or Share to be paid him out y e prop 1 ' 8 
Treas r y Also voted that he be allowed and paid the Sum of 
thirty five Shillings for a Book he has procured for the Prop rs 
And that the votes and the records be entered in the Same. 

Also Voted that the Sum of Ninety pounds be raised and 
paid to the treas r within three months. 



42 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Also Voted and Chose Cap 1 Jose ph Blanehard Mess rs John 
Richardson & Jonathan Sheple be Chosen and appointed Asses- 
sors for this Prop*y 

Also Voted and Chose M r Joshua Converse Collector for the 
Ninety pounds Rated for Voted to be raised at this meeting. 

Also Voted that the Sum of five pounds be paid to M r Thom- 
as Harwood for the Expences by the prop rs Clerk and treas 1 " 

Also Voted that Mess rs Benj a Parker and John Colburn 
be Directed and Desired with a Surveyor & Chain men to Lay out 
the best piece of y e Unappropriated Lands of the Province to 
Satisfie the Grant of 1680 acres made to this prop^ they Can 
find with all Convenient Speed And make return therof at 
the next prop rs meeting. 

ACTION FOR A SAWMILL. 

Pursuant to the request of a Sufficient Number of the Prop vs 
of Tyngs Township so Called 

These are to give notice to the prop rs of y e S d Township that 
they Convene and meet at the house of M r Tho s Harwood In- 
holder in Dunstable On Monday the 15 th day of November 
next Ensuing Att Eleven of the Clock in the forenoon Then 
and there to come into some proper Method for the Erecting of 
Mills in the S d Township and to Give Such Encouragement 
To Any Person or persons as shall Undertake the Same by 
Granting them Lands or Any Other Way that may be tho k Con- 
venient, and As they think Proper and See if they will Sell any 
Lands for Publick Uses that is not yet Allotted to y e Prop rs in 
y e Division of y e Township Also to See where prop rs Meetings 
Shall be held for the future Dated at Dunstable the 28 th day of 
October 1736 

JOSEPH BLANCHARD prop™ Cler 

The aforewritten Notification was posted in the Several 
towns Agreable to the vote of y e Prop rs for Callings of Meet- 
ings 

Att s JOSEPH BLANCHARD Prop™ Cler. 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 43 

Att a Meeting of the Prop rs of the Comon So Called Assem- 
bled and met at the House of M 1 ' Tho s Harwood Inholder in 
Dunstable On Monday the 15 th day of November 1736. 

Voted & Chose Benj a Prescott Esq r Moderator. 

Also Voted that Eleazer Tyng Esq 1 ' Cap* Joseph Blanchard 
& M r William Tarble be a Com tee Directed & Fully Impowered 
to Agree with any proper Person or Persons that shall give 
bond to the Said Com tee in trust, to and for the use of the 
prop rs of live hundred pounds with Sufficient Surety's within 
the Space of ten months next Coming To Erect a Sufficient 
Sawmill at and have the Same ready to Saw boards and tim- 
ber upon the Brook Called Little Cohass or upon the Other 
brook Called great Cohass in y e S d Township and also within 
the Space of three Years Erect and finish a good Grist mill at 
one or Other of the S d places and keep the Same mills in Good 
Repair fit for Service the term of twenty Years And that he 
Saw at all times for the Prop rs Such Loggs as they Carry to 
his mill for One half of the boards &c or at the rate of twenty 
Shillings °cg Thousand for good Marchantable boards at the 
Election of the prop rs Carrying Loggs to the Mill and that he 
be Oblidged to Saw for each Prop r an Equal proportion of 
Loggs if Such Prop r Shall Desire it and provide loggs as 
afores d And for Such person or persons Encouragement who 
shall undertake to Build Mills and ^form the terms and Arti- 
cles as aforesaid ; the Com tee are hereby Fully Impowered to 
give the Stream & Land Reserved upon it for the Use of a mill 
&c On the brook Called Little Cohass afores d or any part ther- 
of to Such Undertaker his heirs and Assigns forever and pass a 
good and Sufficient Deed therof 

Also Voted that Prop 1 ' 8 meetings be held at Groton for the 
future untill the prop rs shall see Cause to alter the Same 

Upon A motion made and Seconded the Question was put 
whether the Clerk pay out of the propy money, M r Harwood 
for what has been Expended in his house this meeting ( which 
Amounts to Six pounds ninteen Shillings & eight pence. ) it was 
voted in the affirmative Nemine Contra-dicente 

Also it was voted nemine Contradicente' that the prop 1 ' 8 Clerk 
and Treas 1 ' Cap 4 Joseph Blanchard do not pay Cap fc Caleb Blod- 



44 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

get any money for any Service by him Pretended to have been 
done for the prop rs ( he haveing Deceived & Imposed upon 
them any former Orders to the Contrary notwithstanding 

The foregoing votes passed at the meeting afores d 

Att s Benj a Prescott Moderator 

The afore written votes is a true record Entered ^ me 

JOSEPH BLANCHARD Prop 1 '* Cler 

MEETING TO RAISE MONEY AND HEAR REPORTS. 

Pursuant To The request of a Sufficient Number of y e Prop 1 * 8 
of Tyngs Township so Called 

These are to give notice to the prop rs of the Said Township 
that they assemble and meet at the House of M r Benj a Ban- 
crofts Inholder In Groton on Tuesday the 28 th day of March 
next at ten of the Clock in the forenoon Then & There first 
to hear the report of the Com tee Chosen to Agree with Some 
person or persons Relating to the. Building of a mill or mills 
in S d Township and give Such Further Incouragement to any 
that Shall undertake that Service, by Grants of Lands or 
money that shall be tho* Needful & Proper 

Also to hear and Consider the acc os of any person to whome 
the prcp rs are Justly Indebted & Order payment therof 

Also to Raise any Sum or Sums of money that Shall be 
tbo fc necessary for Carrying on any of Prop rs necessary Buis- 
ness 

Also to See if the prop rs will free M r Andrew Belcher from 
paying any of the past Charges in Said Township 

Also To Choose a prop 1 * 8 Clerk. 

Dated at Dunstable the 28 th day of February 1737 

JOSEPH BLANCHARD Prop 1 * 8 Cler 

The aforewritten Notification was post in the Severall Towns 
agreable to the vote for Calling of Meetings ^ me 

JOSEPH BLANCHARD Prop 1 * 8 Cler 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 45 

Att a meeting of the Prop rs of Tyngs Township so Called 
on Tuesday the 28 th of March 1738 (1737 ?) Assembled at the 
house of M r Benjamin Bancroft Inholder in Groton 

Benj a Prescott Esq 1 ' was Chosen Moderator 

Then Voted and Agreed that the mill Lott as Lay'd out in 
the Second range and the lot next Below Namaskeeg Falls 
Joyning to the two hundred acres reserved for the Province at 
S d falls be and hereby is granted and Confirmed unto M r Wil- 
liam Tarble his heirs and assigns forever on Condition that he 
give bond with Obligated in the Sum of five hundred Pounds 
with Sufficient Security, conditioned for the building a Sawmill 
on Little Cohass or great Cohass Brook within S d Township, in 
the Space of Seven months next Coming, and keeping the 
Same in Good repair fit for Use for the Space of ten years 
next Coming after the Same is built and that he Erect and 
build a good Grist mill On One of the S d Brooks within the 
Space of Six months next after the number of twenty familys 
be Settled in the said Township and keep the Same in good Re- 
pair for the Space of ten years next Coming after the said mill 
is Erected and fitted for use and that he Saw for and Sell to 
any of the prop rs of the Said Township, During the Said term 
at the prizes which is usually paid to Persons Owning mills in 
the Same or in the Neighbouring Towns 

And That Benj a Prescott Esq r Cap* Tho s Tarble and 
M r Benj a Parker be a Comittee to take Such Obligation in the 
name and behalf of y e Prop rs and to be forfeited to their Use on 
failure of any of y e Conditions aforesaid 

Also Voted that M r Andrew Belcher be Dissmissed all the 
rates heretofore assessed on his Right 

Cap 1 Josiah Richardson from the Com tee appointed to Sue 
and Prosecute &c Reported Shewing that they had been to view 
the tresspasses done, and had Comenced Some Actions which 
Since were agreed under promise to desist and go off the Land, 
and that the Expences of the viewing getting evidences Catch- 
ing the tresspassers, are as Followeth. 



46 



MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 



To Josiah Richardson viewing to find what 
Tresspass was done three days @ - - - 
To Will™ Tarble Ditto 3 days ----- 1 

by Will m Tarble paid To Benj a Blodget - - 
More to One day S d Richardson - - - - 

More S d Tarble for One day ----- 

When the Acctions was Comenced to men 
Carryed for assistants to Namaskeeg at 10s 
*$ day each 
To Coll Prescot 3 days in that Service - - 
Cap* Lawrence 3 days Ditto ----- 

Lieu 4 Tarble 3 days Ditt° ------ 

Benj a Parker 3 days Ditt ------ 

Jonathan Sheple 3 days Ditt° ----- 

Joseph Farwell Jun r 3 days Ditt - - - 

Samuel Woods : 3 days Ditt 

Cap* Jona. Richardson 2 days Ditt - - - 
Cap* Joseph Blanchard 2 daya Ditt - - - 
Major Ep m Hildreth 3 days Ditt - - - - 
Sam 1 Colburn 3 days Ditt° ------ 

Jon a Perham 2 days Ditt° - 

Josiah Richardson 3 days Ditt° - - - - 
Cash p fl To John Varnum for Service 



Total £22 18 

The aforewritten Acc° was Read allowed and Ordered that 
the Same Should be paid by the Treas r to the respective per- 
sons therin Named 



£1 10 





1 10 





6 





10 





10 





£1 10 





1 10 





1 10 





1 10 





1 10 





1 10 





1 10 





1 





1 





1 10 





1 10 





1 





1 10 





12 






Also an Acc° of Cap* William Lawrence wherin he Chargeth 
the prop r y Deb* for Serving two writts two Defend* 55 in each 
writ® £3 

for three Blanks --------- 030 

which was read Allowed and Ordered that the Same be paid 
Out of y e prop 18 Treas^ 

Also Ep m Hildreth Esq r & Joseph Butterfield Charg's the 
prop r9 D r to three days each going to meet and Accomodate 
w th M c Cleary's @ 10s f day each - - - - £3 

Cap* William Lawrence 3 days Ditt ------ 1 10 

which was Read Allowed and Ordered to be paid out of y e 
prop rs Treas^ 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 47 

Benj a Parker From the Com tee appointed to Lay out y e 1680 
Acre grant reported that they had attended that Service & that 
a plan therof was Returned to the Gene Court and Accepted 
and Lay'd an Acc° of his Expences before the Society, as Fol- 
lowed,' Nov r 22 d 1736 

Prop 1 ' 3 D r for Service runing round and taking a plan of 
1680 Acres of Land Joyning to Piskatoguage River 

To Benf Parker 11 days @ 10s f day - - £5 10 

To John Colburn 1 1 days @ 10s f day - 5 10 

Sam 1 Cumings as Surveyor 11 days - - - 6 12 

To Isaac Patch assistant 10 days @ 10s ^ day 5 



Total 22 12 

The aforewritten Acc° was Read Allowed and Accepted and 
Ordered that the Same be paid Out of the prop rs Treas 1 *? 

Also Voted that the Prop™ Clerk and Treas r pay M r Ban- 
croft the Expences of the present Meeting which Amounts to 
the Sum of Eight pounds Sixteen Shillings 

ACTION IN REGARD TO HIRING A MINISTER, 

Pursuant To the request of a Sufficient number of the 
Prop rs of Tyngs Township so Called 

These are to give Notice to the prop rs of the S d Tyngs Town- 
ship that they Convein and meet at the House of M r John 
Buckley Inholder in Groton on Tuesday the 28 th day of No- 
vember Curr* at ten of the Clock in the forenoon then and there 
to hear and Examin the Acc° of the prop r ^ To See what 
money has been Raised and how far the Same has been paid 
Away. 

Also to See if the prop rs will hire Preaching in S d Township 
and how Long 

Also to Agree upon and Order the Building a meeting house 
in S d Township if they see Cause and Raise money to Defray 
any necessary Charges that may be tho* Needfull 



48 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Also to Agree upon what place prop 1 ' 8 meetings Shall beheld 
at for the future 

Dated at Dunstable y e 2 d day of November 1738 1 

JOSEPH BLANCHARD prop™ Cler 

The aforewritten Notification was posted in the Several & 
Respective Towns agreable to the vote for Calling of meetings 
fme 

JOSEPH BLANCHARD Prop™ Clei 

Att a meeting of the prop rs of Tyng3 Township so Called, 
at the house of M r Benj a Bancroft Inholder in Groton Assem- 
bled On the 28 th day of November 1738 

Voted & Chose Ephraim Hildreth Esq 1 ' Moderator 



Also Voted and Chose Cap* William Lawrence Mess rs Benj a 
Parker And Will™ Stickney a Com tee to Examin into the Acc os 
of y e S d Propriety an Report theron at the next meeting 

Also Voted that Cap* Will m Lawrence be Added to the 
Com tee for Letting Out jthe mills in the room of Co 1 Prescott 
Esq 1 ' Deceesed. 

Also Voted that there be assessed on y e Prop rs the Sum of 
thirty pounds, ( to be Lay'd out in Preaching the Gosspel in 
the (?) Said|Township where that the prop rs that are now Set- 
tled there shall see Cause to Agree upon ) and Ep m Hildreth 
Esq r To take the care and Procure Such preaching there, 

Also Voted that the Meetings be held at the House of 
M r Isaac Farwell Inholder in Dunstable for the future 

Also voted that the Expence Expended at this Meeting to 
(be) paid by the prop 1 ? w ch is £3 

Also Voted that Ep m Hildreth Esq r pay the Reckning to 
M r Buckley viz. thirty Shillings each and that they be admit- 
ted to Draw the Same Out of treas r ^ Again 

EPH m HILDRETH Moderator 

A true record Entered ^ JO s BLANCHARD Prop 1 ' 8 Cler 



1 It does not appear that any meeting was held for a year or more, during 
which time several of the grantees, dissatisfied with the expense and future pros- 
pect of the grant, abandoned their claims. 



TYNC. TOWNSHIP. 49 

Pursuant To the request of a Sufficient Number of the 
Prop 1 " 8 of Tyngs Township ( so Called ) 

These are to give Notice To the prop 1 " 8 of the Said Town- 
ship that they Convcin and meet at the House of M r Isaac Far- 
well Inholder 

In Dunstable on thirsday the eighth day of March next at 
ten of the clock in the forenoon then and there to grant and 
Confirm Any Lands to Any Person who will undertake the 
Erecting of Mills in the S d Township ( as shall be Agreed on ) 

Also to hear the Report of the Com tee Chosen the last 
Prop 1 ' 8 meeting to Examin the prop rs Ace 08 

Also to Choose a prop rs Clerk and treas r 

Also to Se if they will Erect a Meetinghouse in the S d Town- 
ship 

Also to Raise a Sutable Sum of money to Defray the neces- 
sary Charges Risen and Ariseing in the Said Township 

Also to Choose and Impower proper persons as Agents to 
Sue or Defend in Any Action Comenced or to be Comenced for 
or Against the S d Prop 1 " 8 or wherin they may be Concerned and 
to pursue the Same to final Judgement & Execution if they 
See cause aud give them Such Instructions as Shall be 
tho* Prop 1 ' Dated at Dunstable Feb r y e Q ih 1738 

JOSEPH BLANCHARD Prop™ Cler 

The aforewritten Notification has been posted in the Several 
& respective Towns Agreable to The vote of y e Prop rs dor 

Calling Meetings ^ me 

JO 8 BLANCHARD Prop™ Cler 



The Historic Quarterly, Manchester, N. H., Sept., 1901 
Vol. II, No. 3. 



50 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Att a meeting of the Prop 1 ' 8 of Tyngs Township so Called 
at the House of M r Isaac Farwell Inholder in Dunsble as- 
sembled on the 8 th day of March 1738 

Voted & Chose Eleazer Tyng Esq r Moderator 

Also that Wheras Jonathan Perham has bound himself to this 
Prop*? to Erect Certain mills and ^pform Sundry Dutys in 
S d Tyngs Township as ^ his Bond, Therefore in Consideration 
therof. Voted And Agreed that the mill Lott in the S (1 Tyngs 
Township in the Second range of Lotts as Lay'd Out and De- 
scribed by the plan therof, And Also a Lott Containing about 
Sixty Acres near and adjoyniug to Namaskeeg Falls in S d Town- 
ship Bounded Westerly by Merrimack River Northerly by the 
two Hundred Acres Reserved by the Province for the fishery 
Easterly by the Second Range line Southerly by the lott N° 15 
and as the Same is more expressly Set forth and Delineated by 
a plan therof on file be granted and Confirmed unto Jonathan 
Perham of Nottingham his heirs and Assigns forever 

Also the Comittee viz. Cap* William Lawrence Mess rs Benja- 
min Parker & William Stickney, Appointed to Enquire into the 
State of the treasy And know the Recipts and Disbursements 
of the Treas r & his vochers Reported as Followeth 

Assessed on the Prop rs Exclusive of the 

Last thirty Shilligs Tax Comitted to 

Joshua Converse to Collect together with 

Associates money five hundred and One 

pound five Shillings & eight pence 
paid the Treasurer by Jonathan Perham 

By Thomas Worthley 

By a Rong Casting 

564 5 8 

Wee Likewise find that Cap 4 Joseph Blanchard Treasurer of 
this Prop 4 ? has paid Out to Several Persons Agreable to the 
grants of this Prop*? the Sum of Six Hundred twenty One 
pounds twelve Shillings, & A penny - - - £621 12 1 

Which Leaves the Ballance Due to the Treas r 57 6 5 



£501 


5 


8 


40 








22 








2 









TYNG TOWNSHir. 51 

And in Asinueh As the Collector of y e 30s or £90, Rate 
viz. M r Joshua Converse has not made Return and no Regard 
to. that Rate Which report was voted Allowed & Accepted, 
And Ordered that the Prop 1 ' 3 Treas 1 ' be Discharged of the Re- 
spective Sums by him Rec d Exclusive of y e afores d 30s or 
Ninety Pounds Rates & have the Aforementioned Ballance al- 
lowed him. 

Also Voted and Agreed that the Sum of Six pounds nine 
Shillings be granted and Allowed To Maj r Eph m Hildreth Esq r 
As An Addition to the grants and Allowances heretofore made 
him by This Prop 1 ? on Condition And in consideration that he 
drop the Action Designed by him Against the Prop'? and take 
the Same & the Sums Granted heretofore in full Satisfaction 
of All Demands on the Prop*? & he at y e Same Declared his 
Action drop't 

Also Voted that the Prop rs Expences at this meeting be 
Paid by the Prop 1 ' 8 Treas r viz £9 4 

The Prop 18 of Tynstown Being duly notified to assemble at 
the house of Isaac Farwell in Dunstable on y e 3 d day of April 
1739 to Act On the following Articles — viz 

To hear the Ace 08 of any person to whome the Prop*? are 
Justly Indebted And allow and Order payment therof if they 
think meet 

Also to hear the Adjusting of Any Acc ots necessary for the 
Prop rs to Enquire into in Order to know how much money is 
necessary to Raise for payment of the Prop 1 ' 8 debts & Carrying 
On any affairs to y e Prop 1 ' 8 Benifit 

Also to Choose Assessors a Collector Prop 1 * 8 Clark and treas r 

Accordingly mett At time & Place 

Jonas Clak Esq r was Chosen moderator 

Also Voted that Eleazer Tyng & Ep m Hildreth Esq rs & M r 
Will™ Stickney be a Com tee to examin into the Additional Acc oa 
of Joseph Blanchard Treas r who Reported 



52 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

They found to be Added to his Credit viz. 

paid To Jo 8 Butterfield, Allowed JanF3 d 
1737 ------ 

To Jo s Buttler Allowed December 5 th 1737 

To John Usher Allowed may 11 1737 - - 

To Sam 1 Cumings Dit° April 25 th 1737 - 

To Benj a Parker may y p 8 : 1738 - - - 

To John Lovewell Jun r July 9 th 1737 

To Joshua Converse p d M r Isaac Far- 
wells Expences 

List Returned by Joshua Converse of De- 
linquents - - 

To Cash Paid at Isaac Farwells Expences 

more to Cash p d Sam 1 Cumings on Cap* 
Lawrences Acc° - - - 

To Cap* Caleb Blodget Cash - - - - 

More Cash paid Eph m Hildreth - - - 

more by M r Andrew Belchers Rates Abated 

more Cash p d for aprop rs Book - - - 

Total 

Which Sums viz. - - - 

And - - - - 

127 15 2 

for Which the S d Treasurer give Credit the 

Prop rs , by One Ninety pounds Rate 90 

Comitted unto Joshua Converse to Collect 
Ballance Due to S d Treas r - - - - 37 15 2 

Which Acc° was Read Allowed Accepted And it was Voted 
that the S d Ballance of 37 15 2 be paid to Joseph Blanchard 
Treas 1 " 

Also Voted that the Sum of Two Hundred & forty pounds 
be assessed on the Prop rs And Mess rs Joseph Blanchard Jon a 
Bowers and Josiah Richardson were Chosen Assessors & Will m 
^tickney Collector for S d Rate, And Sworne to their respective 
Trusts before Eleaz r Tyng Esq 1 ' Jus ce of peace 



£3 


10 


9 


5 


8 





1 


10 





2 


8 





1 


10 





2 


4 





9 


4 





19 


15 





9 


4 





1 


10 





6 








6 


15 





1 


10 





1 








70 


8 


9 


57 


6 


5 


70 


8 


9 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 



53 



Also Voted & Chose Jonas Clark Esq 1 ' Treas 1 ' for this Prop*y 
who Accepted of that trust 

Voted And Allowed to Mess rs William Lawrence William 
Stickney & Benj a Parker ten Shillings Each for their Respec- 
tive Services Looking into the treas 1 ' 8 ace 03 

VOTE TO BUILD A MEETING-HOUSE AND INQUIRE INTO THE 
BOUNDARY DISPUTE. 

Att a meeting of the Prop rs of Tyngs township so Called 
Regularly Warned And Assembled at the House of M 1 ' Isaac 
Farwell Inholder in Dunstable the 2 1 st of August 1740 

Voted and Chose Cap* Sam 1 Chamberlain, Moderator 

Then Voted that those persons whose Lands ( in S d Town- 
ship And Part of the Original Prop 1 * Are teresspassed* upon or 
Are passed by Any Person Claiming under New Hampshire 
shall within three months from from this meeting Prosecute Such 
^sons else be deprived for the future of Any Benifit or As- 
sistance from the Prop 1 * in the Defence or Recovery of Any 
Such Lands 

Also Voted that Mess rs Eph m Hildreth Will m Lawrence & 
Joseph Blanchard be a Com tee fully Impowered & Directed at 
the Charge of this Prop*? ( by Taking a Legal Power ) to As- 
sist in Suing And defending in Any Action Comenced or to be 
Comenced, of tresspass or Ejectment, for or against any Per- 
son or Persons in tryal of the Title or Trespass as afores d on 
Any Lands in S d Township belonging to the Prop** or grantees 
therof S d Com tee or Any One of these Are directed also at the 
Cost and Charge of the Prop 1 " 8 that if any Prop rs as afores d be 
Arrested and Carryecl into the Province of New Hampshire by 
any Writ or process for Improveing on their Lands there, to 
Redeem them from Such Arrests or Arrest, and to take a pow- 
er of Attorney to Appear in their names to Prosecute and De- 
fend in any Matter Joyntly or Severally According to the 
Whole tenour of this vote 

Also Voted that the S d Com tee be Impowered to draw so 
much money out of the treasury as there may An Imediate Oc- 
casion for, And be Accompt to the Prop 1 ' 8 for the Same And thje 
Treasurer is likewise Directed on their Request and Giving re- 
cipt to pay it Accordingly 



£1 








1 


10 





1 











10 






54 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Also Voted that the following Acco os Occasioned by the 
Prop 1 * 8 of Londonderry arresting Jonathan Chamberlain be Al- 
lowed 

viz to Cap* Josiah Richardson One Pound 

To Jonathan Chamberlain 

To Sam 1 Chamberlain Jun r ... - 
To Deacon Joseph Perham ten Shillings 
Also Allowed To Joseph Blanchard for his 

Joimey to Tyngs Town & Trouble with 

the Action of Tarble against Bell two 

pounds ---------- 2 00 

Allowed to Cap* Tarble & Cap fc Lawrence 

Forty Shillings each for their Service 

in that affair -------- 4 00 

Also Voted that the Sum of Thirty Pounds 
be Allowed for preaching the trouble of 
hireing & Billiting inCluded, - - - £30 

Also Voted that Mess rs Jonathan Chamberlain Archabald 
Stark and Micael M c Clinto be Directed to Take Care to Pro- 
vide the Same 

Also Voted that the Prop r8 Inhabiting in S d Township Ap- 
point the place where Such meeting shall be held 

Also Allowed To Joseph Blanchard ten 

shillings for his Service in making the 

last Rate, - - £0 10 

Also Allowed to Joshua Converse ten 

pounds for his Service as Collector - 10 

To M r William Stickney Collect four 

pounds for his Service ----- 4 00 

To Joseph Blanchard to his Service in 

Collecting the first Taxes & Service as 

treas r Down till the Choice of Coll 1 Clark 

fifteen Pounds - - 15 

for his Services As Clark Entering votes 

Posting Meetings &c ----- 15 

for attendance on Comittee ExaminingAc os 00 10 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 55 

Also Voted and Allowed to M r Isaac Farwell, the Sum of 
ten pounds fourteen Shillings money for Expeuces at his house. 
y e meeting 

Alt a meeting of the Prop rs of Tyngs township so Called 
Regularly assembled at the House of M r Isaac Farwell Inhold- 
er in Dunstable On the first day of January 1739 

Voted And chose W m Lawrence Esq r Moderator. 

Also Voted and Chose Benj a Thompson Esq r Capt us Josiah 
Richardson & Thomas Taible a Com tee to Manage the Pruden- 
tials of this Prop*y & That they be Directed to State And Or- 
der the Places of Building necessary Bridges in S d Township, 
the Place of the Inhabitants meeting On the Sabbath that they 
d^termin the necessity of Calling Meetings, that they Order the 
Seasons in the year for Preaching in S d Township, when money 
at anytime is raised for that Use, That they be also directed 
to Enquire into the Compliance of those Persons Obligated to 
Erect mills in S d Township & Report theron to this Prop 1 "? the 
next meeting Also to Exaimin into the Prop 1 " 8 Accompts Since 
April Last past, And Other Acc os not before Settled & see if 
their money has been paid in and Distributed According to the 
vote of this Prop ty , and Report theron at the next meeting. 

Also Voted that they be directed forthwith to Enquire Into 
the Proceed ure of the Collector and Assessors of this Prop^ 
where there are any delinquents, in Any of the past rates, if 
there has been Any deficiency in the Proceedings, in any Such 
rates, as to render the Sale of Such delinquents Lands, In- 
vallid that they be Directed ( Provid ed they find Such deficien- 
cy ) forthwith to Cause to be ^formed all such (?) requisites 
necessary in Order for recovering such delinquents rates, & in 
the Name and Behalf of this Prop r y to proceed According to 
Law to Sell Such delinquents Lands for the rates, As Soon as 
may bee 

Also Voted to Build a meetinghouse the Said Township of 
the Following dimentions viz. forty two feet Long and thirty 
feet wide twenty feet between Joynts and that the meeting- 
house fraim be Raised at or before the Last day of August 
next And that the Roof be boarded Shingled Weather boards 
put On the boarding Round well Chamfered the necessary 



56 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Doors made and Hung A Double floor lay'd below with all 
Convenient . Speed After the s (1 Fraim is up so that it be thus 
finished by the first of december next And That Eleazer Tyng 
And Benj a Tompson Esq 1 ' 8 and Cap 1 Jonathan Bowers, or any 
Two of them be a Com tee fully Im powered in behalf of this 
Propty to Lett, out the S d work, & in their S d Capacity to En- 
ter into Bonds or Articles of Agreement for the fulifillment & 
Compleating the work as afores d And the Said Com tee Are di- 
rected to post up Notifications of the time and place of their 
meeting to Let out the S d work in the Several places that notifi- 
cations Are posted for Calling Prop 1 " 8 meetings ten days before 
the S d Work be let Out 

And the S d Com tee are further Directed in case of an Indian 
Warr to prolong the time of Building S d House 

Also Voted that the Sum of One Hundred & Eighty pounds 
be assessed on the Prop 1 ' 8 to be paid Forthwith And that the 
Same be Collected by M r William Stickney who is Chosen Col- 
lector and Mess 1 ' 8 Joseph Blanchard Sampson Stoddard & 
Josiah Richardson Chosen assessors who were all Sworne to 
their respective trusts before Eleaz 1 ' Tyng Esq 1 ' Jus ce of peace, 

Also Voted And Allowed to Jonas Clark Esq 1 " four pounds 
for his past Service as Treas r 

The Comittee Appointed to Lay out Roads Reported Report- 
ed their proceedings therin And voted not to Accept it 

Also Voted And Allowed to M r John Richardson twelve 
Shillings for his Service in making the first assessment 

Att a meeting of the prop 1 ' 8 of Tyngtownship so Called held 
at the House of M 1 ' Isaac Farwell in Dunstable on the twenty 
fourth day of July 1740 

Benj a Tompson Esq 1 ' was Chosen Moderator 

Also Voted that the Comitte for the Prudentials be directed 
to See that the Sawmil be fitted forthwith According to Con- 
tract & On failure, to Sue the Bond Given for that Purpose 
And to Examin the Prop rs Accompts As voted the last meeting 
And Report theron at the next meeting 



TYKG TOWNSHIP. 57 

Also Voted That Joseph Blanchard Esq 1 ' be Directed to Ap- 
ply to Some Gentleman Learned in the Law for Advice what is 
best to be done in the Present Circumstances of this Prop 1 '^ And 
that he be Directed to measure off the Township of London- 
derry And Chester so far as to Obtain a Certain knowledge, 
what Part if Any ( the Lines of those towns ) According to 
their Charters Include of said township, And that he be Furth- 
er directed, to Apply to the Gen 11 Court at their next Session if 
he shall then think it Adviceable for their directions what meas- 
ures Further to totake, Also to make Such Further Searches 
into the titles of Any Persons who Lay Any Claim to the Said 
Township Or Any part thereof As may be tho't necessary 
and Report theron 

Also Voted that the Charges of Entertainment at M r Far- 
wells the Present meeting be paid Out of the Produce of the 
Sales of the delinquents Lotts Already made by the Com tee 
And that his receipt Discharge them for so much, the whole Ac- 
compt being the Sum of fourteen pounds Seventeen Shillings & 
three Pence, Eleven Shillings And nine pence whereof Spent 
by the Com tee for Sale of the Delinquents Lotts at their first 
meeting for that Service And Voted that this meeting be Ad- 
journed to the 15 th day of September next to meet Again At 
this place At ten of the Clock forenoon And the meeting was 
Accordingly Adjourned by Benj a Tompson moderator 

Att a meeting of the Prop rs of Tyngs Township so Called, 
At the house of M r Isaac Farwell the 15 th of September 1740 
held by Adjournment from the 24 th of July Last past to this 
time & place Adjourned to M r Joseph Frenches to meet forth- 
with & mett accordingly 

Wheras the prop 1 ' 5 of this Township being Informed That by 
the determination of his Maj'r in Council respecting the Contro- 
verted Bounds between the Province of the Massachusetts Bay 
And New Hampshire, This Township is Excluded from the 
Province of the Massachusetts Bay to which they always Sup- 
posed themselves to belong Therefore Voted that A Petition 
be Preferred to the Kings most Excelent Majesty Setting forth 
Our distressed Estate, And praying that we may be Annexed to 
the S a Massachusetts Province And that Thomas Hutchinson 
Esq r be And hereby is fully Impowered to Preferr Such Our 
Petition to his Maj^ And to Appear And fully to Act for And 



58 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

in behalf of the Inhabitants And Prop 1 ' 8 of this township Re- 
specting the Subject Matter of S d Petition According to his best 
Discretion 

Also Voted that Eleaz 1 ' Tyng Joseph Blanchard and William 
Lawrence Esq rs be Impowered in behalf of this township to 
Sign a Petition to his Maj 1 *' As afores d 

Also Voted that the Com tec for Building the Meetinghouse be 
directed to See that the Meetinghouse be raised aud Inclosed 
According to the former Vote Respecting the Same At or be- 
fore the Last day of June next. 

Also Voted that this meeting be Adjourned to the twenty 
fifth of September Curr* at ten of the Clock in the forenoon to 
this place 

Also Voted that, the Prop rs be at no Charge at the Adjourn- 
ment Except it be Out of y e Charges in the Sale of the Delin- 
quents Lotts, And the Moderator Adjourned the Meeting Ac- 
cordingly 

RAISE MONEY FOR PREACHING. 

At A meeting of the Prop 1 * 3 of Tyngs town began & held at 
Dunstable the 24 th of July 1740 and Continued by Several Ad- 
journments to the 25 th of Sep 1 ' 1740 mett Again at the House 
of M r Joseph French in Dunstable And Adjourned to tomor- 
row nine of the Clock forenoon 

Mett Again Accordingly And Voted that notwithstanding 
Anything in the foregoing votes, that the Said Agent be not 
paid Any thing from this Prop*? And the S d Petition to be Pre- 
ferred On No Other Conditions Than by what the Province has 
or shall grant to forward the Same 

The Expences at this Meeting at M r Jo 8 Frenches Amount- 
ing to fourteen pounds fifteen Shillings & nine pence be Al- 
lowed & paid 

Then voted that this meeting be Adjourned to the 28 th of 
October next to meet At the House of Jonas Clark Esq 1 ' in 
Chelmsford at ten of the Clock forenoon And the Moderator 
Adjourned the Meeting Accordingly 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 59 

Att A meeting of the Prop r8 of Tyngs Township Begun and 
held at Dunstable on the 24 th of July 1740 And Continued by 
Several Adjournments untill the 28 th of October 1740, And 
Agreable thereunto, mett at the house of Jonas Clark Esq r in 
Chelmsford And Voted that Wheras Cap* Caleb Blodget at the 
Order of this Propriety had Attended the Service of Laying 
Out Hyways in S d Township that he be allowed for his Service 
therin the Sum of three pounds 



Also Voted that the treas r be Directed to pay to M r Benj a 
Bowers for his Preaching in Tyngs Town Thirty two Pounds of 
the first money that Comes into the treasury 

Also Voted that the Treas r pay to M r Dunlap Thirten pounds 
Fifteen Shillings For his Service in Preaching ins d Township 



Then Voted that this meeting be Adjourned to the 16 th of 
December next to this Place ten of the Clock forenoon. And 
the Moderator Adjourned it 'Accordingly 



At w ch Adjoument the Prop 18 did not meet 



VOTE NOT TO HAVE A CLERK. 

Att a meeting of the Prop rs of Tyngstownship held At Dun- 
stable At the House of M r Joseph French in Dunstable On the 
16* h day of April 1741 

Capt Josiah Richardson was Chosen moderator 

And Voted that Joseph Blanchard Eleazer Tyng & Will m 
Lawrence Esq r should be a Com tee to treat with the towns of 
Chester and Londonderry referring to the lines between Tyngs 
town & them towns Also Voted that the Com tee have a Dis- 
cretionary Power in making Agreement with their Com tees or 
Towns and make report at the next meeting of the Prop 16 
theron 



60 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Also Voted that meetings shall be held for the future at The 
house of Jouas Clark Esq 1 ' in Chelmsford untill the Prop 1 " 8 Shall 
Alter the Same 

Also Voted that the Prop 1 " 8 shall pay the Expence of this 
meeting, And that each Prop 1 * that pays his Cash now shall be 
Reimbursed the Same by the Prop at F out of the Treas 1 "^ 

Also Voted that this meeting shall be Adjourned to the House 
of Jonas Clark Esq 1 * in Chelmsford the Second Thursday of may 
next And Accordingly Adjourned there According to w ch Ad- 
journment met again On the fourteenth day of may 1741 And 
Put to vote whether the Prop rs of Tyngs Township would 
Choose a Com tee for their Prudentials & it Passed in the Nega- 
tive 

Also Whether they would Choose a prop 1 ' 8 Clark and it 
passed in the Negative 

Also Voted that Eleazer Tyng W m Lawrence & Joseph 
Blanchard be Allowed forty Shillings Each for their Journeys 
to Chester and Londonderry to treat with their Comittees 

Also That Michael M c Cliuto be Allowed twenty five Shillings 
for assisting in Riming London Derry Line To Tyngs Town 
Also Voted to Reconsider the vote of Holdingmeetings at Coll 
Clarks & Voted that the next meeting be held at Tyng Town 
the third tuesday of June Next at the meeting house place & 
that after that meetings Should be held at Coll 1 Clarks for the 
future untill the Prop 1 ' 8 Shall Alter the Same & then the meet- 
ing was Dismissed 

At a meeting of the Prop 1 ' 8 of Tyngs Township held in S d 
township at the House of William M c Clinto's the 16 th day of 
June 1741 

The Rev d M r Tho s Parker was Chosen Moderator 

Also by Enquiry Respecting the Acc os Cap* Josiah Richard- 
son is behalf of y e Com tee Appointed for that purpose Report- 
ed, that About the Sum of One Hundred and twenty pounds 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 61 

When the taxes Already Voted was paid, Lay Ballance in fav- 
our of the Prop fc y Excepting What Accompts has not yet been 
passed by this Prop*? 

Also Voted that Eleaz r Tyng Will m Lawrence & Joseph 
Blanchard Esq 1 ' 3 Or Any two of them be fully Impowered to 
meet with the Cbm tee of Chester and Londonderry And Propose 
Such matters And Agree to the Same As they shall think most 
Conducive to the Interest & peace of Each Prop tys And provid- 
ed nothing be Agreed on by the S d Severall Propriety 8 for de- 
lay of the tryal of the title of S d Lands Then that the S (l Com- 
ittee be Joyntly And Severally Impowered to Sue & De- 
fend in all matters And Causes Whatsoever that may Concern 
or Effect Any Prop 1 ' or the Prop fc y in S d township at the 
Charge of this Prop*?, if the Com tee Should think best 

Also Voted that the Sum of twenty pounds be Allowed the 
Com tee for the Bridges to Enable them to pay for the Bridge 
Over great Cohass, And twenty four Shillings for a Bridge Over 
Linkfield Brook And the Sum of ten Pounds Allowed to Mich- 
ael & William M c Clinto's for the Bridge Over Greate Cohass 
And the Meeting Adjourned till to morrow morning Eight of 
the Clock at the meeting house place & the meeting Was 
Opened at the S d meeting house place Accordingly, & Voted 
that the Expences at Will m M c Clinto's be paid by the Prop^ 
& those Persons who now Advance the money to be Allowed 
the Same by the Prop rs which charges was as Follow's 

For horses One pound ten Shillings - - £1 10 

for drink thee pounds Seven Shillings & 

ten d - - 3 7 10 

paid in the Following Manner 

by Cap* Lawrence £110 

M r Tho s Parker ---.---- l 00 

Cap* Josiah Richardson 5 

M r Peter Russell 0100 

Cap* Caleb Blodget 1 

By Joseph Blanchard ------ .0 1210 



62 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Then The meeting was Adjourned to meet Again At the 
House of M r Sam 1 Moor in Litchfield to morrow, morning, 
Seven of the Clock, And mett Accordingly And Voted that 
Wheras the Saw mill in S rt Township is not finished to Saw as 
was Expected & Covenanted for wherby the finishing the meet- 
inghouse is under great Disadvantage & must be much more 
Expensive to Robert Anderson who is Oblidged to finish the 
Same At or before the last day of June Cuirant, and that he 
might not be a Sufferer by the Neglect of the finishing the S d 
mill nor Exposed to Imediate prosecution Therefore that the 
S d Anderson have Liberty further to delay to finish the S* 1 
House as Covenanted for if Compleated At Or before the last 
day of November next 

And Wheras it freequently Happens those prop rs of this town- 
ship that from time to time have Attended Prop 1 ' 8 meetings by 
Reason of their living remote from the places of holding the 
Same Are put to Considerable Expence in time & travil And 
Usually Oblidged to Advance money for Carrying forward the 
Prop rs necessary Affairs, while Others many times to Save them- 
selves from Such Expensive ( tho necessary ) Journeys — do 
not Attend, And neglect to pay their Rates by means wherof 
the Bringing forward the Settlement of this Plantation is much 
Retarded And it Appearing Necessary that Such meetings 
should Still be held and more General Attendance Given And 
the Assessments more Punctually paid And that each Prop r 
more Equally do his part in Bringing forward the Settlement 
for Encouragement wherof Unanimously voted That each 
Prop 1 " who has Attended this present meeting by himself Or 
Attorney Also those who shall Attend meetings for the future, 
be Allowed And paid Out of the Publick treas r of this Prop^ 
the Sum of twenty Shillings ^ day for his travil and Attend- 
ance for Each Sixty third part of said Township or whole share 
and so in proportion for a greater or less Right he shall be duly 
Authorized to Act for, which Acc os to be Approved of by the 
Prop rs the Same meetings they shall Attend Always Provided 
Such Prop 1 " or Attorney do at the Same Meeting pay the proper 
taxes due on Such Right or Share he shall so Appear for, or 
give Such Security for the Seasonable payment therof As the 
Prop rs at said meeting Shall Accept And On No Other Condi- 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 63 

tionsWhatsoever This vote to remain And be inforce during 
the Pleasure of this Prop*? And No Longer 

Also Voted that there be assessed On this Prop*? the Sum of 

three Hundred Pounds and were 

Chosen Assessors And Cap* Caleb Blodget Collect r 

Also Voted that Joseph Blanchard be directed to Examin 
into the Acc os of the Prop 1 ' 8 And Lay a Particular Acco* of the 
treasury before the Prop^ 

Also Voted that Cap t William Lawrence be directed & desir- 
ed to Receive Such money as is due to the treas 1 * both for the 
former Rates And the three Pounds Rate Granted at this meet- 
ing And to Receive Security in trust for this Prop 1 * of Such 
present as Cannot pay their money, And Such Security to be 
Accepted & Their Rates be discharged thereupon 

Also Voted that Cap* William Lawrence be the treas r of this 
Prop 1 * And be directed to pay Out No part of the money by 
him Rec d but what he shall have Certificate for from the Prop 1 ' 3 
Clerk that the Same has been Allowed by the Prop rs And Not 
discharged & proper receipt for money so Paid by him to be 
his discharge for so much 

Also Voted Provided Any person ( who Shall at this time 
give Any note or Other Security for payment of his Taxes) 
shall neglect to make payment therof Longer than the last day 
of July next That he Imediately Sue for Such Debts And that 
And that he be Accomptable to this Prop*?" Therefor 

Also on A motion of Cap* Benj a Tompson 

Voted to Allow him the Sum of One 

pound twelve Shillings fo Service in 

letting Out the meeting house - - - 1 12 

more for three days Service Examining 

Ace 08 of the treas 1 ' 110 

Also Allowed to Cap* Thomas Tarble for 

Service done in Letting out the Bridge 

Over great CohassAnd Linkfield Brook 2 8 6 



64 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY 



EXPENSE OF RAISING A MEETING HOUSE. 

Also Allowed to Sundry Persons for Provisions & Drink at the 
Raiseing the meetinghouse the Sums Following, 

To Joseph Blanchard for Rum & Provi- 
sions ---------- 2153 

To the Rev d M r Thomas Parker - - - 2 

To Sam 1 Colburn 1116 

To Cap* John Colburn 116 

To Jonathan Chamberlain for a Salmon - 4 6 

To Archebald Stark for a Salmon - - - 9 

To William Tarble ------- £0 6 - 

To Peter Russell 0136 

To Henry Farwell & Joshua Converse - 15 6 

To Benjamin Tompson Esq - - - - 1 10 

To Cap* Thomas Tarble ----- l 611 

To Cap* William Lawrence ---- 1163 

To Cap* Jon a Bowers 18 6 

To Cap* Josiah Richardson - - - - 117 

To the Rev d Willard Hall 10 

Stephen Peirce - - 6 

Had of William ?M C Clin to for Raiseing 

6 g^of Rhum at 18s f G 11 ® - - - 5 8 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 65 

CHAPTER IV. 
LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF LOTS. 



The Lotts Drawn by Joseph Butterfield iu Tyngs Township 
So Called. 

N° Six in the first Range. N° 12 in the fourth Range N° 63 
in the third Range N° 60 in the fourth Range. N° 2 ameadow 



Lott, on great Cohass. 



s v 



Number Six in the first Range Bounded as followeth Begin- 
iug at the River at a Stake, thence East to the Range line to a 
Stake thence north 25 d s east 60 Rods to apine thence west 
to the River to a Stake thence South by the River to the first 
bounds. w ch lot Contains Ninety Acres and is three Quarters of 
a mile in length 

N° Twelve in the fourth Range Contains one hundred and 
five Acres Bounded thus Begining at the Northwest Corner at 
A Stake from thence runing South twenty One degrees west 
Sixty Rods by the Range Hue to apine tree marked from thence 
east 4 deg 8 South to the township line by Lott N° 11 to a 
Black Oake from thence North 24 d 8 east Sixty Rods by The 
Township line to a Stake and Stones Sixty Rods from thence 
west 4 d s N. by Lot N° 13 to the first Mentioned Bounds. 

The lott N° Sixty in the fourth Range Contains one hundred 
and five Acres. Bounded thus begining at apine marked from 
thence runing South 25 deg 8 West Sixty Rods by the range 
line to apine thence East by Lott N° 59 to the township line 
to apine from thence North by S d line Sixty Rods to apine 
Thence west by Lott N° 61 : to y e first bounds mentioned 

The Meadow lott. N° 2 on Great Cohass Contains Sixteen 
Acres and is the Second lot. from the lower end on the South 
Side the Northwest Corner is a white Oake the North east Cor- 
ner is a Stake by the Brook then runing up the brook to an 



The Historic Quarterly, Manchester, N. H., December, 1901. 
Vol. II, No. 4. 



66 MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 

Other stake from thence Southerly to a White Oake thence 
westerly to a Stake thence northerly to the first mentioned 
bounds. 

The lotts Drawn by Cap 1 Henry Farwell in Tyngs township 
so called, are as followeth 

Number Seven in the first Range Number eighteen in the 
fourth Range Number Sixty two in the Second Range. Num- 
ber eight in the third Range North of Cohass, Number three 
ameadow Lott. on Great Cohass. 

The Lott. N° 7 in the first Range Contains ninety Acres, 
and is bounded as followeth 

Begining at a Small Black Oake the Corner of Rands farm 
thence by the River Sixty Rods to a Stake from thence East by 
Lott. N° 6 to y e range line from thence Northerly to the Fiue 
tree the Corner of Rands farm thence west Six deg s South by 
Rands line to the first bounds mentioned. 

The lott. N° Eighteen in the fourth Range Contains ninety 
one Acres, and is Bounded thus. Begining at a Stake in the 
Rauge line from thence South twenty One deg s west Sixty 
Rods to a white Oake from thence East four degrees South by 
lott. N° 17: to y e township line from thence North ten 
deg s east Sixty Rods to a pine in S d line from thence west 
four degrees North by lot. N° 19. to y e first mentioned bounds. 

Number eight in the third Range Contains one hundred & 
and twenty three Acres. Bounded thus begining at apine 
marked in the Range line from thence riming South four and 
anhalf d 8 west Sixty rods to a pine from thence east four 
degrees South by lott. No. 7 to y e fourth Range line thence 
North ±y 2 d s East Sixty Rods to the Bounded by the range 
line thence west four degrees north by Lott. N° 9 to the first 
mentioned bounds. 

The meadow Lott. N° 3 Contains ten Acres thirty eight 
perch 

The Lotts Drawn by John Richardson are as followeth 
N° nine in the first Range N° 52 in the Second Range N° ten 
in the fourth Range N° 29 in the third Range N° 4 ameadow 
Lott. On Great Cohass. 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 67 

The lott Number nine in the first Range Co(u) tains One hun- 
dred and Sixteen Acres Bounded thus Westerly by merrimack 
River Begining at apine from thence east by lot N° 8 to the 
Rand line to a stak and Stones from thence North 4*/£ deg s east 
Sixty Rods to a Stake and Stones bounded by the range line : 
from thence west by Lott. N° 10. to a Red Oake at the River, 
thence by the river to the first mentioned Bounds. 

N° 52 in the Second Range contains eighty two Acres and 
one hundred and forty pole Bounded Thus Begining at apine 
tree marked from thence Runing East by lot. N° 51 to a Stake 
and Stones in the range line from thence north Sixty Rods by 
the Range line to a Black Oake thence west by lott Number 
53. to a Stake and Stones thence South by the Range line to 
where It. began. 

N° ten in the fourth Range Contains ninety four Acres and 
is Bounded thus Begining at awhite Oake bush from thence 
east 4 d 8 South by lott N° 11 to the Townshipline from thence 
by the township line South 24 d s west Sixty Rods to a Stake and 
Stones from thence west 4 d s North by Lott. N° 9 to the Range 
liue at a Black Oake from thence North 2 ds east Sixty Rods by 
the Range line to y e first Bounds mentioned. 

N° 29 in the third Range Contains Ninety Acres Bounded 
thus Begining at an heap of stones thence runing East nine 
degrees South by lott N° 28 to apine tree in the Range line 
thence North twenty five degrees east. Sixty Rods to an heap 
of Stones from thence West nine degrees North by lot N° 30 
to apine tree in y e Range line thence South 25 degrees west 
Sixty Rods by the Range line thence ,to the first bounds men- 
tioned. 

The Lotts Drawn by Cap* William Lawrence in Tyngs Town- 
ship so called, are as Followeth 

N° 10 in the first Range below Namaskeeg 
N° 53 in the Second Range 
N° 7 in the fourth Range 
N° 30 in the third Range 

The lot N° 20 in the first Range Contains One hundred and 
Two Aeres and bounded as Followeth Begining at a Red Oake 
tree by Merrimack River from thence east by Lott. N°^9 to a 



68 MANCHESTER HISTOKIC ASSOCIATION. 

Stake and Stones in y e Range line from thence north iy 2 
deg s east Sixty Rods to a Stake and Stones in y e said line from 
thence west by Lott. N° 11 To a Black Oake at the River so by 
the River to y e first bounds 

The lott. fifty three in the Second Range Contains eighty 
two Acres 140 perch and is Bounded thus Begiuiug at a Red 
Oake from thence east by Lott. N° 52 to a red oake marked in 
y e range line from thence north by the S d line Sixty Rods to an 
heap of Stones from thence West by Lot N° 54, to an ash tree 
in y e Range line from thence South Sixty Rods to y e first 
bounds mentioned 

The lott N° 7 in the fourth Range Contains one hundred and 
Twenty Acres, and is bound thus Begining at a Stake and 
Stones from thence runing east 4 d s South by Lott. N° 8 to the 
Township line at an heap of Stones from thence South 30 
d s west by S d line Sixty Rods to a Black Oake from thence 
West 4 degrees north by Lott. No. 6. to a White Oake in the 
range line from thence north 40 ds east By the Range line Sixty 
Rods to where we began 

The lot N° thirty in the third Range Contains one hundred 
and Sixteen acres Bounded thus Begining at apine tree in the 
range line from thence east nine degrees South by Lott. 31 to 
an heap of Stones in the range line from thence South 25 ds west 
by the Range line Sixty Rods to apine marked from thence 
West nine degrees North by Lott. N° 29 to apine in the Range 
line from thence North 25 ds East by y e Range line Sixty Rods 
to y e first bounds 

The Lotts Drawn by Nathaniel Woods in Tyngs Township 
are as Followeth 

N° 12. in the first Range 

N° 1 1 in the third range north of Cohass 

N° 1. in the fourth Range 

N° 47 in the third Range 

The lott. N° 12 in the first Range Contains Seventy Six 
Acres Bounded thus begining at awhite Oake from thence east 
by Lott. N° 11 to a Stake in the Range line from thence 
north 4^ East Sixty Rods by the range line to a stake from 
thence west by Lott N° 13 to apine at Merrimack River thence 
by the River to y e first bounds mentioned Sixty Rods 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 69 

The lott. N° 11 in the third Range north of great Cohass 
Contains One hundred & Eleven Acres Bounded thus Begining 
at a Stake and Stones in the range line from thence Runing East 
4 d 8 South by Lott N° 12 to an heap of Stones in the Range 
line from thence South 4% d 8 west Sixty Rods to a pine in the 
Range line from thence west 4 d s north by lott. N° 10 to a 
pine in y c Range line from thence north 4^ d 8 east Sixty Rods 
by the Range line to where we began 

The lot Number one in the fourth Range Contains 
acres and is Bounded thus Begining at a 

The Lotts in Tyngs Township (soCalled) Drawn by Jon- 
athan Shepley and Zachariah Hildreth are as Followeth 

N° 16. in the first Range 

N° 15 in the third Range north of Cohass. 

N° 6. in the fourth Range 

K° 59 in the fourth Range 

N . 6 ameadow Lott. 

The lott. N° 16 in the first Range Contains Seventy Acres 
and is Bounded thus Southerly by the Land reserved for the 
Province at Namaskeeg falls Westerly by the River Northerly 
by lot N° 17 and Easterly by the Range line begining at apine 
by y e River thence East to y e Range line thence North Sixty 
Rods by the Range line to y e lott. N° 17 : then west by N° 17 
to Merrimack River 

The lott. N° 15 in the third Range north of great Cohass 
Contains One hundred and Eleven Acres Bounded thus begin- 
ing at a Stake and Stones from thence east 4 d 8 South by Lott. 
N° 16: to a Stake and Stones in the Range line from thence 
South \y 2 de 8 west Sixty Rods by the Range line to an heap 
of Stones from thence West 4 ds North by the lot N° 14 to a 
Stake and Stones in the Range line from thence North 4^ 
d 8 East Sixty Rods by the Range line to y e first mentioned 
bounds 

The Lott. N° 6 in the fourth Range Contains one hundred 
and four Acres Bounded thus begining at a White Oake in the 
Range line from thence runing East 4 ds South by Lott N° 7 to 
a Red Oake in the townshipline from thence South 37 ds W. 
Sixty Rods by the township line to a Stake and Stones from 



70 MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 

thence West 4 ds north by Lott. N° 5 to a Stake and Stones in 
the Range Line from thence North 40 ds East by the Range 
line to the first mentioned Bounds. 

the Lott. N° 59 in the fourth Range Contains one hundred 
and fifteen Acres Bounded thus Begining at apine marked from 
thence East by Lot 60. to apine in the township line thence 
South Sixty Rods by the township line to A Pine tree marked 
thence west by Lot. N° 58 to an heap of Stones in the Range 
line from thence North 25 d s east by the Range line to y e first 
bounds mentioned 

The meadow Lott. N° 6. on great Cohass. Contains 
Acres And Lyeth ony e Southerly Side the Brook Bounded as 
Followeth 

The Lotts in Tyngs Township so Called Drawn by the Hon. 
Will m Dudley Esq 1 ' are as Followeth 

N° 17 in the first Range 

N° 1 3 in the third Range North of Cohass 

N° 19. in the fourth Range 

N° 68. in the fourth Range 

The lot. N° 17 in the first Range Contains Seventy Acres 
and is Bounded thus Begining at Merrimack River at a Pine 
thence East by y e lot N° 16. to y° Range line thence North 4^ 
d* east By the range line Sixty Rods to Co 1 Dudley's Farm 
soCalled from thence west by S d Farm to Merrimack River 
thence Southerly by Said River to where we began 

The lott. N° 13 in the third Range above greatCohas 
Contains One hundred and Eleven Acres Bound thus Begining 
at a Stake and Stones from thence east 4 ds South by Lott. 
N° 14 to an heap of Stones in the Range line thence South 4% 
deg 8 west Sixty Rods by the Range Line to a stake from 
thence West 4 d s north, by the lot. N° 12 : to a Stake And 
Stones in the Range line thence North 4^ ds East Sixty Rods 
by the Range line to the first bounds Mentioned. 

The lot N° 19 in the fourth Range Contains eighty four 
Acres Bound thus Begining at amaple tree in the range line 
from thence Runing East 4 ds South by Lott. N° 20 to a Black 
Oake in y e township line thence South 10 d 8 west by S d line 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 71 

Sixty Rods to a Stake and Stones from thence west 4 ds north 
by the lot N° 18. to a Stake and Stones in y e Range line thence 
north 5 ds east 60 Rods to the first Bounds Mentioned 

The Lott. N° 68 in the fourth Range Contains Ninety Acres 
Bounded thus Begining at a Stake in the Range line thence 
riming east by lot N° 67. to the township line thence North 
9 ds west Sixty Rods by the Township line to apine thence 
West by Lott. N° 69 to y e Range line to a Stake thence South 
by the range line Sixty Rods to y e first bounds mentioned 

The Meadow lott. N° 7 on great Cohass Contains 

The Lotts in Tyngs Township (soCalled) drawn by Jonathan 
Hartwell Are as Followeth 

N° 2 in the first Range North of Co 1 Dudley's Farm 

N° 37 in the Second Range 

N° 5 in the third Range north of Cohass 

N° 69 in the fourth Range 

the Lott. N° 2 in the first Range north of Col. Dudley's 
Faim Contains Ninety three Acres Bounded thus Begining at 
apine tree marked on y e Banck of y e River thence east by Lott. 
N° 2. to y e Range line to a Stake and Stones, thence North 
twenty five degrees east Sixty Rods to a Black Oake thence 
west by the lot N° three to a pine at the River thence By the 
River to the first bounds. 

The Lot N° 37. in the Second Range Contains Sixty Acres 
Bounded thus Begining at a Stake in y e line of Col. Dudleys 
Farm thence East by the Lott. N° 36. to a Stake and Stones in 
the range line thence North 25 ds east by S d line Sixtytwo 
Rods to a Black Oake thence west by ye Lott. N° 38. to a pine 
Bush in ye line of Coll. Dudley's Farm thence South South 
Sixty Rods to the first Bounds 

The Lott N° 5 in the third Range north of Cohass Contains 
One hundred and Sixteen acres Bounded Thus Begining at a 
stake the corner of y e training field thence Runing East 
4 d South by Lott No. 4. to the Range line to apine marked 
thence North 4% East Sixty Rods to apine in y e range line 
thunce west 4 d 8 North by the lot N° 6 : to an ash in the Range 
line marked thence South 4)^ d 8 west Sixty Rods to the first 
Mentioned Bounds 



72 MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 

The Lott. N° 69 in the fourth Range Contains 

Jonathan Richardson Drawed the following Lotts in Tyngs 
Township soCalled 

N° 1. north of Coll. Dudley's Farm in y e 1st Range 

N° 36. in the second Range 

N° 14 in the third Range north ° of Cohass 

N° 77. in the fourth Range 

The lot N° 1 in the first Range above Coll Dudley's Farm 
Contains one hundred and ten acres and is bounded thus 
Begining at apine tree by Merrimack River from thence east by 
Col. Dudleys farm to his Northeast Corner AWhite Oake from 
thence North 25 d s east Sixty tworods by the Range line to a 

White Oake from thence west by the Lot N° 2 to apine by 
Merrimack River thence by the River to the first Bounds men- 
tioned 

The Lott N° 36 in the Second Range Contains Sixty Acres 
Bouned thus Begining at a Stake from thence Runing east by 
Lot N° 35. to apine tree in the Range Line thence North 
25 ds east Seventy Rods to a Stake and Stones thence west by 
the Lot N° 37. to a Stake in the line of Coll Dudley's Farm 
thence South by his. Line to the first Bounds. 

The Lott. N° 14 in the third Range north of Cohass Contains 
one hundred and Eleven Acres Bounded thus Begining at a 
Stake And Stones from thence East 4 ds South by Lots N° 15 : 
to a Stake and Stones in the range Line from thence South 4% 
(ls West Sixty Rods to a Stake thence west 4 ds north by the 
lot N° 13. to a Stake and Stones in the Range Line thence 
North 4% fIs east by the range line Sixty Rods to ye first 
Bounds 

The Lott. N° 77 in the fourth range Contains 

The Lotts in Tyngs Township Drawn by Jonas Clark 
Esq s are as Followeth 

N° 3 in the first Range 

N° 11 in the fourth Range 

N° 23 in the third Range north of Cohass 

N° 70 in the fourth Range 

N° 8 ameadow Lott. on Great Cohass 



TYNG TOWNSIIir. 73 

The Lott. N° 3 in the first Range Contains Ninety Acres and 
is Bounded thus Begining at apine tree by Merrimack River 
from thence Runing east by the lot N° 2. to the range line to 
apine from thence North 30 <ls east Sixty three Rods to a 
Stake from thence west by the lot. N° 4 to apine by the River 
thence South by the River Sixty three Rods to y e first men- 
tioned Bounds 

The Lott. N° 11 in the fourth Range Contains one hundred 
And One Acres Bounded Thus begining At an Oake Bush from 
thence running from thence Runing east 4 ds South by Lott. 
N° 10. to a Black Oake in the townshipline from thence North 
24 ds east Sixty Rods by the S d line to a Red Oake from 
thence west 4 ds North by the Lott. N° 12 to a pine from 
thence South 21 ds west Sixty rods to the first Bounds 

The Lott. N° 23 in the third Range North of Cohass Contains 
Ninety Acres and is Bounded Thus Begining at a Stake and 
Stones in y e rangeline from thence runing east twelve degrees 
South by the Lott. N° 24 to a Stake in y e Range line from 
thence South 25 ds West Sixty Rods to a Stake and Stones 
from thence west 12 d9 north by the lott. N° 22 to a Stake and 
Stones in the Range line thence North 25 d s east Sixty Rods 
by the Range line to the first Bounds 

The Lott. N° 70 in the fourth range contains 

The Meadow lott. N° 8 on great Cohass 

The lotts Drawn by Eben r Spalding in Tyngs Township 
(soCalled) are as Followeth 

N° 2. in the first Range 

N° 1 in the first Range 

N° 25 in the third Range 

N° 71 in the fourth Range 

N° 9 ameadow Lott. on Great Cohass 

The lotts. N° 2. & N° 1 in the first range Lye together and 
Contain two Hundred And Ninety Acres Bounded thus Begin- 
ing at Merrimack River at a pine from thence runing east, by 
the Lott. N° 3. to apine at the range line from thence by the 
range Line South westerly to a Small pine by Litchfield line 



74 MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 

from thence North twenty two and an half Degrees west by 
Litchfield line to a pine at y e River thence North 60 Rods to 
y e first bounds mentioned 

The Lott. 25 in the third Range Contains Ninety Acres 
Bounded thus Begining at a Red Oake from thence east twelve 
degrees South by the lot N° 26. to a Red Oake in the Range 
line from thence South 25 d s s West Sixty Rods by the Range 
line to a Stake and Stones from thence west 12 ds North by the 
lott. N° 24 to apine in the range line from thence North 
25 tl8 east. Sixty rods by the range line to y e first mentioned 
Bounds 

The Lotts Drawn in Tyngs Township (soCalled) by 
Tho 8 Lund' 8 Right Are as followeth 

N° 7 in the Second Range 
N° 50 in the Second Range 
N° 41 in the third Range 
N° 55 in the fourth Range 

The lot N° 7 in the Second Range Contains One hundred 
and Eleven Acres Bounded as Followeth Begining at a Stake 
at the range line from thence Riming East thirty Six degrees 
South by the Lot N° 8 to apine tree Marked thence North forty 
d 8 east one hundred And twenty Rods by the range line to 
awhite pine marked from thence West twenty two degrees 
North by the lot N° 6 to a Stake in the range Line thence by 
the Range line South 35 ds west to the first Mentioned bounds 

The lot N° 50 in the Second Range Contains eighty two 
Acres and is Bounded thus Begining at a Stake in the Range 
Line and thence east by the Lott. N° 49 to a Stake and Stones 
in the Range line thence north Sixty Rods by the range line to 
apine thence west by the lot N° 51 to apine in the Range line 
thence South by the Range line Sixty Rods to the first bounds 
mentioned 

The Lot N° 41 in the third Range Contains one hundred and 
Sixteen Acres Bounded thus Begining at apine from thence east 
by the lot 40 to a Stake in the range Line Thence north by the 
range line Sixty Rods to an heap of Stones thence west by the 
lot N° 42. to apine in the range line thence South by the 
Range line Sixty rods to the first Mentioned bounds 



TTNG TOWNSHIP. 75 

The Lott. N° 55 in the fourth Range Contains one hundred 
and fifty five Acres Bounded thus begining at awhite pine 
thence runing east 7 ds South by the lot N° 56. to apine in the 
township line thence South 25 ds west Sixty Rods by the S d 
line to apine Thence West 7 (ls north by the lot N° 54. to a 
Black Oake in the Range line Thence North 25 ds east Sixty 
Rods to the first Mentioned Bounds 

The lotts Drawn by M r Andrew Belcher in Tyngs Township 
are as Followeth 

N° 8. in the Second Range 
N° 12 in the third Range 
N° 42 in the third Range 
N° 56 in the fourth Range 

The Lot N° 8 in the Second Range Contains eighty two 
Acres and is Bounded thus Begining at a Stake from thence 
East thirty Six degrees South by the lot N° 7. to a pine thence 
South 40 ds west Sixty Rods to aStake thence West thirty six 
d s north by the lot N° 9 to a Stake in the range line thence 
Northeasterly by the Range line to the first mentioned Bounds 

The lot N° 12 in the third Range Contains one hundred And 
One Acres Bounded thus Begining at a Stake from thence east 
nineteen degrees South by the lot N° 11. to a Stake in the 
range line thence South 40 ds west Sixty Rods by y c range 
line to a Stake thence West 36 ds north by the lot N° 13 to 
apine in the range line thence North 40 ds east Sixty Rods by 
the Range line to the first bounds 

The lot N° 42 in the third Range Contains one hundred and 
fifteen acres Bounded thus Begining at apine thence east by the 
lot N° 41 to a Stake in the Range Line thence North Sixty Rods 
by the range line to a stake thence west by the Lot N° 43 to 
the Range line at a stake thence South Sixty Rods by S d line 
to y e first Bounds mentioned 

The Lot. N° 56 in the fourth Range Contains One hundred 
And thirty nine Acres Bounded thus Begining at awhite pine 
thence east seven degrees South by the lot N° 55 to apine tree 
in the townshipline thence North 25 ds east Sixty Rods by S d 
line to awhite Oake thence West Six degrees North by the Lot 
N57 to y e Range line at a Black Oake thence south 25 ds west 
by S d range line to the first Bounds 



76 MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 



The Lotts in Tyngs Township soCalled Drawn by the 
Rev d M r8S Tho s Parker and Will" 1 Read are as Followeth 

N° 5 in the Second Range 
N° 1 3 in the third Range 
N° 40 in the third Range 
N°57. in the fourth Range 

The Lot N° 5 in the Second Range Contains one hundred 
and two Acres Bounded thus Begining at a stake from thence 
Riming east twenty two degrees South by the lot N° 6. to a 
white pine in the Range line thence Runing North 21 ds east by 
the Range line Sixty five Rods to amaple thence west 
22 ds north by the lot N° 4. to a pine in the range line thence 
South 35 ds west Sixty five rods by the range Hne to where we 
began 

The lot N° 13 in the 3 d Range Contains one hundred And 
One Acres Bounded thus Begining at apine in the Range Line 
thence Runing east 36 ds South by the Lot N° 12. to a stake 
in the range line thence South 40 ds West by the Range line 
Sixty Rods to a Stake & Stones thence runing West thirty Six 
degrees north by the lot N° 14 to apine thence North 40 ds east 
by the range line to y e first mentioned Bounds 

The lot N° 57 in the fourth Range Contains One hundred 
and nine Acres Bounded thus begining at a Black Oake from 
thence east Six ds South by the lot N° 56. to awhite Oake in 
the township line Thence North 13 ds east by S d line Sixty 
rods to awhite Burch thence west 6 ds north by the Lott N° 58 
to apine in the range line thence South 25 ds west by the 
Range line Sixty Rods to where we began 

The Lott. N° 40 in the third Range Contains one huudred 
and Sixteen Acres Bounded thus Begining at apine thence 
Runing east by y e lot N° 39 to a Stake in the range line thence 
Runing North Sixty Rods by the Range line to a stake thence 
Runing West by the lot 41 to apine in the Range line thence 
runing South by S d line Sixty Rods to where we began 

The Meadow Lott. N 10 Contains 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. / / 



The lotts in Tyugs Township (soCalled) drawn by Jonathan 
Page are as Followeth 

N° 12 in the Second Range 

N° 4 in the third Range 

N° 6 in the first Range above Dudley's Farm 

N° 58 in the fourth Range 

The Lott. N° 12 in the Second Range Contains Seventy 
three Acres Bounded thus begining at a Stake Runing east by 
the lot N° 11 to a pine thence Northerly by the range line Sixty 
five Rods to a pine thence west by the lot N° 13 to the Range 
line a pine marked thence South by the range line to y e first 
mentioned bounds 

The Lot N° 4 in the third Range Contains one Hundred and 
twenty one acres Bounded thus begin in at a Stake and Stones 
from thence Runing East 13 dS South by the lot N° 3. to a 
Stake thence South 21 ds west eighty Rods to amaple thence 
west 19 ds N. by the lot N° 5. to a pine thence North 
21 ds east by the range line to where we began 

The lot N° 6. in the first Range Above Dudley's Farm Con- 
tains Seventyfive Acres. Bounded thus Begining at the River 
at apine thence east by the lot N° 5 to a Stake thence North 60 
rods by the Range Line to a Stake thence west by the lot N° 7 
to apine at the River soby the River to where we began 

The Lott 58 in the fourth Range Contains one hundred and 
twenty five Acres Bounded Thus Begining at a Stake and 
Stones thence runing east Six degrees Southby the lot N° 57 
to a White Oake Bush thence North 13 ds east sixty Rods to 
apine thence west 5 ds north by the lot N° 59 to the Range 
Line at a pine marked thence South 25 ds west Sixty Rods to 
where we began 

The Lotts in Tyngs Township Drawn by Joseph Guilson Are 
as Followeth 

N° 13 y e Second Range 

N° 3 in the third Range 

N° 13 in the first Range above Dudley's Farm 

N° 76 in the fourth Range 



78 MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 



The lot N° 13 in the Second Range Contains Seventy three 
Acres Bounded thus begining at apiue in Rands Line thence 
east by the lot N° 12 to a Black Oake tree in the Range line 
Thence north by the range line Sixty five Rods to a stake 
Thence west by the lot N° 14 to a Stake in Rand Line thence 
Southerly by his farm to where we began 

The lot N° 3 in the third Range Contains Ninety Six Acres 
Bounded thus Begining at apiue tree marked thence Riming east 
thirteen Deg s South by Lott N° 2 to a Stake and Stones in the 
Range line thence South 21 ds west by the Range line Sixty 
Rods to a Stake and Stones thence West 13 ds north by the 
lot N° to a Stake and Stones thence thence North 21 ds east 
by the Range line to where we began 

The Lot N° 13 in the first Range above Dudley's Farm Con- 
tains eighty Acres Bounded thus Begining at apine tree by the 
River from thence Runing east by the lot N° 12. to a Stake and 
Stones thence North by the Range line Sixty Rods to apine 
thence west by the lot N° 14" to an Elm at y e River thence to 
where we began 1 

ACTION FOR INDEMNITY. 

Acquittance & Discharges for The Same Giving & By these 
Presents Granting unto his Said Attorney full Power & 
Authority In & Touching the Premises to Sue Arrest Seize At- 
tach Implead Distrain Eject Imprison Condemn & to Prosecute 
& Again to Release & Discharge & also On all Needfull Occa- 
sions In & Touching any of the Premises to appear & the 
Person of the S d Constituent to Represent as Demandant or 
Defend 4 In any Court or Courts With Power To Substitute 
one or more Attorney or Attorneys under him & the Same at 
Pleasure to Revoke And Generally In & Concerning all the 
Prem s to Say Transact & Accomplish all that shall be Requi- 
site & Convenient as fully & Effectually as the S d Constituent 
himself might or Could Do if Personally Present he hereby 
Promising to hold & Ratify for Good & Valid Whatsoever 
his Said Attorney their Substitutes Shall Lawfully Do or Cause 
To be Done In or about the Premises By Virtue of these 
Presents In Witness Whereof the S d Constituent hath here- 



1 Several leaves of the record book which doubtless contained the description of 
the remaining lots, have been torn out, so this part of the records is left incom- 
plete, and the following matters begins toward its close 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 79 

unto Set his band & Seal the Day & Year first above Written 

W m Thompson (Seal) 
Sealed & Delivered (Being first 
Duly Stampt) In Presence of 
W m Hopkins 
James Monk 

In Testimoniam Novitatis 
(Seal) 

Antbo n y Wright Not Es( i re Pub c 
1746 
Copy Ex d ^ Jon a Blanchard 
By this Publick 

We Andiew Oliver & William Phillips within Written 
Do hereby Substitute Joseph Blanchard of Dunstable In the 
Province of New Hampshire Esq Attorney to the Within 
Named William Thompson of Elsham In the County of Lin- 
coln Esq 1 ' In the Name & for thethe of the s d Constituent to 
Demand Sue for Recover & Receive of & from all any or 
Every Person or Persons Whom it may Concern all Such Sums 
of money Goods & Things Whatsoever Due or Belonging to 
the Said Constituent from any Person Whatsoever In the Prov- 
ince of New Hampshire on What Acco* or By What Reason or 
means So ever Together With all Costs Damages & Interests 
& to that End to Settle & Adjust all Acco ts With Whomsoever 
it may Concern In the Province aforesaid & the Ballance 
thereof to Receive & Give Discbarges Accordingly 

Witness our hands & Seals this 26 th Day of August anno 
Domini 1756 & In the 29 th y r of his Majesty Reign 
Signed Sealed &Delivered And w Oliver (Seal) 

In Presence of us W m Phillips (Seal) 

Benjamin Lincoln 

Daniel Hubbard 

Boston 26 th August 1756 
Suffolk Ss. 

Hon ble And 1 ' Oliver Esq 1- & M r William Phillips appeared & 
Severally Acknowledged the above Instrument to be his free 
Act & Deed 

Before me T. Hubbard J 8 P. 
Copy Exam d 



80 MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 



THE OLD BOOK OF RECORDS. 

With the closing of the foregoing instrument, the opening of 
which is missing along with the leaves that have been torn out 
of the book, the records referring to Tyng Township end some- 
what abruptly. Such other actions as was taken by the gran- 
tees, when they found that their grant was slipping away from 
them, are to be found in the Massachusetts' court records, and 
in the following chapter such of these as can be obtained now 
will be given, as a closing act in an anxious and expensive 
undertaking. 

The old book containing these records of the proprietors, 
and which was bought by Colonel Blanchard, the proprietors' 
clerk, according to the vote of the grantees, is a valuable his- 
torical document, as well as a curious relic and memento of the 
men of the pioneer times. It is a quarto volume, bound in 
hogskin, showing by its dilapidated appearance that it has had 
a varied experience. As it is now, it has 164 pages, marked 
in red ink, but at some period it contained possibly 200 pages, 
as at sections several leaves are gone. There are fragments of 
records of other grants, among these being those of Rindge, 
Jaffrey, Mason, Dublin, and Wilton, N. H., and there are lists 
of the grantees of several other grants in this state and Ver- 
mont. But the larger portion of the book as it stands now, is 
filled with the records of the Tyng's men, written out in a very 
legible hand, and in an ink which has stood the test of the years 
with satisfactory result. 

Evidently the book for a long time was in the possession of 
private individuals, and looks as if it may have been at times 
the plaything of children. Finally, though it is not clearly 
shown now, it came into the possession of the town of Jaffrey, 
where it remained until Colonel George C. Gilmore of Man- 
chester learned of its existence, and realizing its value as a part 
of the history of this city, he began negotiations for its re- 
moval to where it rightfully belongs. Naturally the officials of 
Jaffrey objected to losing the ancient heirloom ; but finally it 
was voted almost unanimously at a town meeting held on March 
10, 1896, to present the book to the city of Manchester. In 
return for the courteous act the latter printed the records relat- 
ing to Jaffrey in a pamphlet of 14 pages for the town. 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 81 



CHAPTER V. 
ACTION TO RECOVER LOSS OF GRANT. 

GRANTEES OF TYNG TOWNSHIP SEEK RELIEF. 

At a meeting of the Prop rs of Tyngs Town (so Called) by 
adjournement from y e 6 Day of August 1750 To the 21 Day of 
January Following, held at y e House of Co 11 Jonas Clark in 
Chelmsford — 

Voted to prefer a Petition to the Great & General Court of 
the Massachusetts For Some Consideration or Relief in the 
Present Difficulties which S d prop rs Labour under with Respect 
to S d Town Ship in Such way and manner as S d Court in their 
Great Wisdom Shall See meet 

Also Voted that W m Stickney * be Desired to prefer The 
above mentioned petition as voted Above 
Billerica April y e 4 : 1751. 

A True Copy att* W m Stickney Prop rs Cler 

Vol. 116, page 26. 



PETITION OF PROPRIETORS FOR EQUIVALENT GRANT, 1751. 

Province of the MassaChusett 8 Bay — 

To the Hon 1 Spencer Phips Esq r Governour & Command r in 
Chief in and over his Majestys Province of the Massachusetts 
Bay: 

The Hon 1 his Majestys Councill And House of Representa- 
tives in General Court Assembled at Boston y e 8th Day of 
April 1751: 

The Petition of Will m Stickney Agent for and in Behalf of 
the Prop rs of a Tract of Land the East Side the Merrimack 
River Known by the Name of Tyngs Town Granted by this 
Hon 1 Court (now falling in the Province of New Hampshi er ) 
humbly Sheweth — 



82 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

That you Pet rs about the year 1726 made Application for a 
Town Ship of Some of the unappropriated Lands of the Prov- 
ince to Settle themselves and Fainelys on to be Granted Them 
in Case their services & Sufferings Were thought Worthy in 
their Ardous undertaking in the year 1703 Pursuing the Indian 
enemy into their then own Country on Snow Shoes the First 
attemp of the Kind and attended with Success with Killing of 
Five Terryfleng & Preventing them of their Winter In- 
roads on us as they had used before as ^ S d Petit 11 & Revivell 
of it in the year 1734 ; will Appear upou which this Hon 1 Court 
in the year 1735 Saw meet to Grant a tract of Land for a 
Town Ship the East side merrymack River Between & Adjoyn- 
ing to Litchfield and ^uucook or Lovewells Town in Conse- 
quence of that said Peti n under Condition of Settlement Subject- 
ing the Grantees to Give Bond of Twenty Pounds Each For- 
feiture And to Return a Plan According to the Ten 1 ' of S d Grant 
all which was Complyed with by y e prop rs in the year 1736 — 
& in order to pursue the Intention of the Grant they Divided 
the whole Township into Convenient lotts, Built a meeting 
house Cleared the Roads &'there being Severale Large Streams 
Made Good Bridges at a Large Expence Through the Town a 
which was very Longe being but three miles wide and 
Great part of prop 1 ' 8 Soon Entered in Order For Complyance 
with the Conditions of the Grant. But the Unhappy Contro- 
versy between this Province and the Province of New Hamp- 
shire being brought forward and a Court of Cornissoners in the 
year 1738 Sitting in order to Conclude that Affaire Some Desis- 
ted they had their Determination, and that being Suspended 
for a further hearing before the King in Counc ]1 Left y e Peti- 
tioners in Great Difficulty many having bestowed Large Sums 
of money in Building & Improvements were encouraged to pur- 
sue their Labours & others entered in the hopes of the Line 
being Setled in their Favor Till upward of Two Thousand 
pounds was Sent in Public Charges of the Prop rs , besides all 
the Charges of Settlement — 

That in the year 1740 the line was Determined against them 
And Deamed to be in the Province of New Hampshire — 
Whereupon they with Severall other towns Pet nd his Majesty 
to be Restore to the Massachusetts as they Expected at the 
time of their Grant, but with no Success. 

That soon after the arrivall of Govern r Wentworth and Hear- 



TYNG TOWNSHIP. 83 

ing the Defeat of our Petition the Towns of Londonderry and 
Chester obtained orders From y Q Gov 1 ' of N. Harnp 1 ' For Run- 
ning out their Bounds according to their Charters which being 
Doue it was found that the S d Tyngs Town fell to a trifle into 
the S d Towns, their meeting house Sawmill and the settlers be- 
ing included in them, which Towns Immediately demanded the 
Possession and Entered Themselves. — 

That your Petitioners thereupon Advised with many of the 
principal Gentlemen of this Government as well as the best 
Councell in the Law they Could Obtain and were Incouraged to 
Dispute their property im the Law which they have done in the 
most Effectual method they Could and have been Harrassed 
allmost every Court from the year 1742 to this day and the 
said Towns of Londonderry and Chester has Recovered the Pos- 
session aud Turned out Every who one has had a final Trial Ex- 
cepting one who for Some Special Reasons Peculiar to that 
Case did Obtain The Remainder of the Settlers Seeing their 
Distressed Circumstances and no way for Relief have Either 
deserted their habitations or Compounded and purchased at an 
unreasonable and Severe Price, have Little for their own La- 
bour, Excepting one who is yet in the Dispute, which Troubles in 
the Defence of their Rights has Cost them many thousands of 
pounds Exclusive of their Much greater Charges in Buildings 
and Improvements and now are Obliged to give over the Ex- 
pectation of its Ever being any benefit to them 

That the S d Tract of Land the East Side of the River did 
not Contain the Complement of six miles Square by 1680 
Acres which they Laid out (and was Approved by this Court) 
The west Side merrymack River about five miles Distance From 
Namaskeag falls and as that Did not fall in Neither of the 
Towns Granted by New Hampshire, they Hoped to Enjoy that 
but since about two years ago Some Gentlemen Claiming the 
Right to the Lands Granted by the Crown to Cap t John Mason 
Have Granted a Township to a Number of People there, which 
includes the S d 1680 Acres and they under S d Mason's Right 
have Actually Settled with a Number of Familys the Lands 
there Granted to your Petitioners so that on the whole wee have 
as wee apprehend Lost the Benefit of Our Own Estate as aforeS d 

Butt being Sensible of the Design of this Hon 1 Court to Dis- 
tinguish them (not as Subjects of the Province but) for their 



84 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Special merritt and Desert for their Suffering and Service in 
their Defence to Grant that Land as a Reward, The Defeat 
therein Gives them Reason Humbly to Hope, that you will yet 
in this respect take notice of us - — 

Wherefore your Petitioners most humbly pray, that they may 
be favoured with your Attention to these their Uncommon Cir- 
cumstances and that they may be Compassionately Helped 
Under their Extraordinary Loss and Disappointment and the 
Originall Design Obtained, by Granting them so much of the 
Unappropriated Lands of the Province in Some Convenient 
Place for the Settlement under Such Conditions as may be 
tho* fit, As will be equall to their Necessary past Charges 
which They are Ready to Shew by their Accompts, and the 
first Design of a Township or otherwaies Relieve them in the' 
premises as Shall in your Great Clemency and Wisdom be 
Thought Equiatable for them, and your humble pete rs as in 
Duty bound Shall Ever pray — 

W Stickney Agent for 

Tyngs Town Prop 1 " 8 

In the House of Rep ves April 17, 1751. Read and Ordered 
that this Petition be refer'd till the next May Session for Con- 
sideration 

Sent up for Concurrence 

T. Hubbard Spk 

In Council April 17 1751 Read and Concurr'd 

Sam 1 Holbrook D fc 7 Sec 
Consented to Phips 

Mass. Archives, Vol. 116, page 22 

After a long and tedious fight in the courts the heirs of Cap- 
tain William Tyng and their associates were given a grant in 
the province of Maine, in 1785, which became known and set- 
tled as Tyngstown, though there is little evidence to show that 
many of the disappointed legatees of the snow shoe expedition 
availed themselves of this opportunity. In 1803, upon its incor- 
poration by the state, the name of this township was changed to 
Wilton, which it bears at the present time. 



COLONEL JOSEPH BLANCHARD. 



Foremost among the early settlers of the territory now com- 
prised in the area of the city of Manchester, Col. Blanchard, not 
because he was one of the actual homemakers, but for the rea- 
son not he was one of the grantees and clerk and treasurer of 
the colony throughout its trying career, deserves a breif sketch 
at this time and place. This is more necessary on account of 
the confusion existing among some writers in regard to the 
positions of the members of his family. There were three 
Joseph Blanchards in succession, aud three Proprietors' Clerks 
successively by the name of Blanchard, all of whom were men 
of consequence in their day. 

The subject of this sketch was born in that part of Dunstable 
now included in Nashua, the old homestead being situated 
about three hundred rods this side of the state line, now Little's, 
on what was then known as " the great road to Tyngsborough." 
His grandfather was Deacon John Blanchard, one of the first 
settlers of the town, and founder of the church. His father, 
Captain Joseph Blanchard, who married Abiah, daughter of 
Joseph Hassell, senior, May 25, 1696, and died in 1727, was a 
prominent man in the affairs of the day. He was town clerk, 
selectman and proprietors' clerk for many years. He led the 
unsuccessful company of fifty men to look for the bodies of 
Lovewell's dead and succor the living, if any should be found, 
as soon as the news of that disastrous expedition reached home. 
He was at the head of a scouting party ranging the Merrimack 
valley all of the following summer. They found no trace of 
the enemy, and contented themselves with killing a bear and 
a moose in this vicinity. 

Joseph Blanchard, Jr, the fourth of nine children, was born 
February 11, 1704, and though but twenty-three at his father's 
death succeeded him as proprietors' cleik, holding that office, 
except for a short period, till his own decease, April 7, 1758. 
He became a proficient surveyor when little more than a boy 

85 



86 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

and was almost constantly engaged in that capacity as long as 
he lived. New settlements were constantly springing into ex- 
istence and it became necessary to make surveys and get more 
reliable information than existed at that time in every direction. 
There were no accurate maps, and in connection with Rev. Mr. 
Langdon of Portsmouth, he undertook to prepare a map of the 
state, doing nearly all of the surveying and collecting of neces- 
sary facts. With the scanty means of communication and the 
scattered settlements then existing, to say nothing of the dan- 
ger from wild beasts and the more dreaded Indians, this was a 
herculean task. But he had succeded so nearly at the time of 
his death that the map was completed in 1761. The map was 
considered of great value, and Hon. Charles Townsend, his 
Majesty's Secretary of War, to whom it was inscribed, pro- 
cured the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity from the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow for Mr. Langdon, a distinction which would 
have fallen on Col. Blanchard had he been living. 

Upon the settlement of the line of division between the 
provinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire in 1741, he 
was appointed Councillor of State by mandamus from the 
Crown. This responsible office, next to that of governor, he 
held for a number of years. In 1749, he succeeded Chief Jus- 
tice Jaffrey as a Judge of the Superior Court, holding this posi- 
tion until his death. 

Upon the renewal of the French and Indian war in 1755 he 
was placed in command of a regiment of 500 men raised in 
New Hampshire to join in an expeidtion against Crown Point. 
Robert Rogers was captain and John Stark was lieutenant of a 
company going from this section and which became famous as 
the Rangers of the Merrimack. The regiment was at Fort Ed- 
ward during the summer and returned home in the autumn. 

Col. Blanchard married Rebecca Hubbard of Dunstable, by 
whom he had twelve children, among which was one Joseph 
and another Jonathan, who with the advantage of a collegiate 
education became a general, in the War of Independence, be- 
sides holding many offices of prominence and trust. Though 
but twenty at the time of his father's death he was chosen as 



CAPTAIN WILLIAM TYNG. 



87 



proprietors' clerk and surveyor. He died July 16, 1788, aged 
fifty years. 

Col. Blanchard was surveyor of the Tyng Township grant and 
its clerk and treasurer. He was buried in the old South Burying 
Ground of Nashua near Little's Station, his tombstone bearing 
the following inscription : 

" Here lyes ye Body of the Hon. Joseph Blanchard Esq., 
who departed this life April 7th, 1758, aged 55 years." 

Near by is the grave of his son, General Jonathan Blanchard, 
who died July 16, 1788, in his 51st year. The Blanchard was 
a gifted, enterprising and honorable family. 



CAPTAIN WILLIAM TYNG. 



The Tyng family was an old, honorably one in the early his- 
tory of the Merrimack valley. The ancestor of the family, the 
Hon Edward Tyng, was bom in Dunstable, England, in 1600. 

He married Mary before emigrating to this country, 

and settled in Boston as a tea merchant in 1639. He became 
prominent both in business and political circles, being elected 
Representative to the General Assembly in 1661-2; Assistant 
(Secretary), 1668 to 1681, and Colonel of Suffolk regiment. 
He moved to the vicinity of Wicasuck Falls, just below the 
village, in what is now known as Tyngsboro in 1679. The 
new township was named Dunstable in compliment to his wife's 
suggestion of the name of her native town. 

Edward and Mary Tyng had six children, the oldest of 
whom was Jonathan, born in Boston, December 15, 1642. He 
married Sarah, daughter of Hezekiah Usher. He became one 
of the original proprietors of Dunstable, and the earliest perma- 
nent settler, remaining there alone with his family during 
Philip's war when other persons deserted the settlement for 
fear of the Indians. He was guardian over the Wamesit 
Indians in 1676; in 1687 he was one of Edmund Andros' 



88 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Council; in 1692 he was Representative to the General Assem- 
bly; and during Queen Anne's war, giving the renewed hostil- 
ities of 1702-3 he was Colonel of the upper Middlesex regi- 
ment, and entrusted with all its garrisons within its bounds. 

His first wife dying in 1714, he married Judith Fox of Wo- 
burn, who lived to be 99 years of age. 

Jonathan and Sarah (Usher) Tyng had six or more children. 
John the oldest of these was born about 1670; he graduated 
from Harvard College in 1690 ; he was killed by the Indians 
in August, 1710. William, the second child, was born April 
22, 1679, being the first child born in Dunstable on record, 
though it is possible there had been previous births, as there 
had been inhabitants for several years previous. It was this 
William Tyng who was the leading spirit of the famous " snow- 
shoe expedition " in the winter of 1703-4, and for whom Tyng 
Township was named. Some of the older writers ascribed the 
leadership to his brother John, and the assault upon him be- 
tween Concord and Groton which cost him his life was said to 
have been give in retaliation on the part of the Indians for the 
victims slain of their number in that expedition. This has 
been disproved by later writers. William Tyng and Joseph 
Blanchard, Sen., were selectmen of Dunstable at the time of 
the march into the wilderness. Renewed hostilities on the part 
of the Indians had immediately followed the declaration of war 
between France and Great Britain in 1703 which was generally 
the case in New England. In the month of August a series 
of attacks were made covering all the frontier settlements. 
Over 200 men, women, and children were killed or carried as 
captives to Canada. The pioneers were terrorized and the 
General Assembly of Massachusetts to encourage the colonists 
to act in retaliation offered a bounty for Indian scalps. Dunsta- 
ble was one of the first towns to act in this emergency, and 
William Tyng was chosen as the most suitable man to lead the 
hazardous expedition. That it was done with skill, prudence 
and success has been shown. But Captain Tyng did not live 
to share in the reward of the grant honored by his name. 



EARLY SETTLEMENT OF KELLEY'S FALLS 

PAPER BY WILLIAM E. MOORE READ BEFORE THE MANCHES- 
TER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION, SEPT. 29, 1899. 



On being called upon for a talk upon early suburban settle- 
ments, Mr. William K. Moore stated that his attention had 
been called to the subject of an early settlement at Kelley's 
Falls, on the Piscataquog, and especially with reference to cer- 
tain excavations and ancient cellar holes near the Falls. He 
had taken pains to make investigations, as the result of which 
the following paper had been prepared : 

It is found that said falls were named for Col. Moses Kelley 
of Goffstown, his title of Colonel being first acquired by his 
rank in the militia and later by a commission in the continental 
army. He was among the earliest and also one of the most 
prominent settlers of the town, owning a very large track of 
land on the Mast Road comprising several hundred acres, lying 
on either side of the highway, extending north and south from 
the farm now occupied by Mr. Gilman Plumer, said land being 
upon the east branch running to the Piscataquog, the shore 
line including the falls referred to, as well as a tract of land on 
the east, or Manchester side. His services while acting with 
the militia and the part taken by him in the revolutionary war 
are set forth in the following extracts from the History of Weare 
and from the New Hampshire State Papers. 

History of Weare, page 215. — Colonel Moore, by Moses 
Kelley of Goffstown, June 30th, 1777, notified Captain Phil- 
brick to raise one-quarter of the militia under his command, 
without loss of time. That very day all the men of the train 
band and alarm list in South Weare assembled at an early hour 
at Lieutenant Worthly's. This action was taken in response 
to a letter of Meshech Weare, chairman of the committee of 
safety, dated May 8th of that year, announcing Burgoyne's in- 
vasion of Vermont and his threatened advance into New Hamp- 
shire. Weare's letter was sent to Capt. Philbrick May 15 th 

89 



90 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

following. Moses .Kelley received his orders on June 30th, 
and wrote at once to Capt. Philbrick as follows : 

u A copy of the above I received this moment from Coll 
Moore to acquaint you, Expecting you will raise one quarter of 
the Militia under your Command without loss of time 

" MOSES KELLEY. 

Goffstown, June y e 30: 1777. 
To Captain Samuel Philbrick of Weare." 

In 1778, Cot. Moses Kelley's regiment, under General Sulli- 
van, was in Rhode Island and saw the battle of Quaker Hill, 
on the North end of Newport Island, August 29th. (" History 
of Weare," page 225.) 

Other men were mustered in by him later. Among those 
who received a bounty from the town of Goffstown of ten 
pounds each " to go to Providence in Rhode Island to do a 
short tower of duty as volunteers in the continental army under 
Gen. Sullivan " was Moses Kelley. Subjoined to the list of 
names is the following endorsement : 

" Nov. 5th, 1778. Received an order on the Treasurer for 
two hundred and ninety pounds, which was advanced by Goffs- 
town to these twenty-nine volunteers. 

MOSES KELLEY." 

N. H. State Papers, Vol. 4, page 258. 

" Col. Kelley was of Goffstown and in command of the 

9th New Hampshire regiment He owned mills in 

Goffstown at the place now known as Kelley's Falls, upon the 
Piscataquog River. He was a zealous patriot, and keeping a 
public house upon the Mast Road many of the forays against 
the Tories of that neighborhood were concocted at Colonel 
Kelley's." (Adjt. Gen. Report, Vol. 2, page 346.) 

It will readily be seen from the foregoing that the part 
played by Col. Kelley in the years immediately preceding the 
Revolution, as well as during the war was quite important, his 
patriotic example aud influence contributing largely in the for- 
mation and direction of public opinion in Goffstown, Weare 
and neighboring towns. It is remarkable that so little is known 
by the citizens of Goffstown concerning the life and services of 
one of her most distinguished sons, as the records yield but 



EARLY SETTLEMENT OF KELLEY's FALLS 91 

scant and meagre information, but it affords the writer great 
satisfaction in contributing at this late day some hitherto un- 
published facts relative to the career of this almost unknown 
citizen, soldier and patriot. Even the date of his death is un- 
known, but it is ceitain he paid taxes iu the town of Weare as 
late as 1793. He is said to have died in Hopkinton at the 
home of a relative. Although the owner of large tracks of 
land in Goffstown and elsewhere in his old age he became em- 
barrassed if not impoverished and died poor. 

Col. Kelley built the first dam on the Piscataquog River and 
erected there a saw and grist mill. They were successfully oper- 
ated by him for many years, both before and during the war 
of the Revolution. At sundry times while engaged in this 
enterprise he filled various town offices, and at one period 
served as high sheriff. 

Moses Kelley was first selectman of Goffstown as early as 
November, 1775, and was chosen moderator in December of the 
same year, and at the same Meeting was chosen to attend the 
Provincial Congress at Exeter. 

December 5th, 1734, was the highest freshet in the Merri- 
mack River ever seen by any person then liviug. The bridge 
over the Piscataquog in Bedford was carried away. This was 
long known as " the great winter freshet." 

In June, 1792, the proprietors of the Amoskeag bridge were 
organized and on August 3d following, the bridge was passable. 

He lived for a time in a frame house which he built on the 
east side of the Mast Road, just south of Mr. Gilman Plumer's 
residence. The original house was torn down years ago and 
another erected upon the same site, first occupied by Benjamin 
Cranshaw, who was known throughout that neighborhood as 
11 Cornshaw." Although not definitely known, it is quite cer- 
tain that Col. Kelley was for sometime the proprietor of the 
old tarvern on the Mast Road and probably lived there after 
his old home was demolished. There was an old-fashioned, 
general country store near by kept by a Mr. Burrell, and a 
blacksmith just north of the " Cornshaw" house, on the same 



92 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

side of the highway. Both of these disappeared many years 
ago, but Mr. Plumer informed me that when cultivating a field 
now owned by him he plowed up an old pair of hand-made 
pinchers on the site of the old shop. The blacksmith's name 
was Wells, and his apprentice was one named Houston, prob- 
ably the father of " John Houston," an old-time blacksmith in 
Manchester fifty years ago, and possibly " Old John " himself. 
There was also«a boai ding-house carried on by a Mr. George, 
and several other families lived near that locality. One of the 
old tavern keepers, perhaps the last, was named Cilley. 

There was a number of traditions and legends connected 
with this old tavern-stand, said to be the oldest framed house 
in Goffstown, and originally built by " Squire Rogers," some 
of which appear to be tolerable well authenticated. There 
were scattered throughout the town a considerable number of 
Tories, but Kelley's Tavern was noted as the neighborhood 
rendezvous for the patriots, or sons of liberty, and it was here 
that means and measures were discussed and concerted to fur- 
ther the cause of the Revolution and to discourage and gener- 
ally make life a burden for the Ring's men. The building itself 
was a loug, rambling, one-story structure, containing not more 
than four or five rooms. The main room had an enormous 
fireplace, capable of taking in sled-length wood and not less 
than a half sled load at once. The chimney frame was of 
brick and peculiarly constructed. 

Above the open space, visible to the occupants of the room, 
and to the right of the flue, was a receptacle or vault, solidly 
bricked up and of sufficient dimensions to contain and conceal 
the body of a man standing upright. Whatever the purpose 
for which this vault was originally designed there is little 
doubt that it was sometime used for some unknown pur- 
poses of concealment. The story goes that the space was 
so occupied for a considerable time by a human being ; that 
the occupant remained hidden during the daytime but emerged 
at night, returning to his hiding place before dawn. Upon one 
occasion this mysterious stranger was encountered during the 



EARLY SETTLEMENT OF KELLEY's FALLS. 93 

night by a guest, who became so terrified at the apparition that 
he jumped headlong through a window to the ground, receiving 
injuries in the fall which terminated fatally. This incident is 
said to have resulted in the ruin of the business of the tavern, 
which was afterwards shunned by its former patrons. The 
true history and details of this strange affair can probably 
never be supplied. The substance of the tale we have given is, 
nearly as related by Mr. Joseph A. Dow, and confirmed in im- 
portant particulars by Mr. G-ilman Plumer, the present owner 
of the premises. The late Mr. Dastin Marshall adds that the 
chimney occupant was accustomed to cover his face and hands 
with whitewood ashes before emerging from the vault, which 
would add to his ghostly appearance. 

The old tavern and the large farm connected therewith was 
purchased about sixty years ago by Mr. Gilman Plumer's 
father. The former was a young man in his teens, but dis- 
tinctly remembers many details concerning the place. The 
north end of the building contained the bar, which young 
Plumer helped to remove. He said at that time he saw and ex- 
amined the great chimney and that the secret vault was then 
closed up on one side with heavy planks. Another story was 
added to the building and some additional alterations made, 
but the first or ground story of the Plumer house as it stands 
to-day was the original tavern. 

Among the early settlers of Goffstown was Lieutenant Wyman, 
who was born in Woburn, Mass, in 1740, who long before the 
Revolution removed to Goffstown, settling near the locality we 
have described. The first house occupied by him was a log 
cabin on the Piscataquog, between Kelley's Falls and Acadia, 
afterwards removing to a farmhouse on the Mast Road. 

This building stood just below the county farm at Grass- 
mere and a part of the original frame is now in what is known 
as the Henry Johnson house. 

Lieut. Wyman saw service in the Indian wars and is said to 
have been at Lovewell's fight. His son Seth was among the 



94 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

men who were enlisted by Col. Kelley in Goffstown's quota for 
the war of the Revolution. 1 He was at Bunker Hill, where he 
was wounded, Saratoga and Fishkill. He lived to be eighty- 
five years of age. He had a son Seth, who was born March 
4, 1784. This second son, Seth Wyman, according to his 
own account, which is concurred in by the accounts of others, 
led a somewhat strange and roving life, and at different times 
lived at various places in Goffstown and elsewhere, but finally 
settled permanently at Kelley's Falls, where he died in April, 
1843. He had a son Lewis, who died and was buried at sea; 
a son Franklin who was killed by a fall ; and another son, 
Cromwell Wyman, who died some years before his father's de- 
cease. Seth and his son Cromwell were both buried at Kelley's 
Falls, their graves being under a large tree near the great 
ledge on the east side of the river. The first Wyman house at 
the Falls was burned down about fifty years ago and another 
was built. Seth was a skillful hunter and trapper and a great 
fisherman. He and his sons had beaten paths from Kelley's 
Fall's down the river, on both sides, and the stream was forda- 
ble at low water, and Seth was a familiar figure in Piscataquog, 
then Bedford, for many years. He was invariably accompanied 
by a pack of dogs. Mr. Charles K. Walker remembers the 
old trail on the west bank of the river, which came down under 
the hill near the bobbin factory and reached the highway at the 
point where the stone bridge now spans the river on south Main 
street. The east trail joined the highway on the north bank 
near the same bridge. On the day and night preceding the 
date fixed for Seth Wyman's funeral, although as late in the 
spring as April* there was great snowfall, from four to five 
feet on a level, and help had to be called from Piscataquog vil- 

1 This is evidently an error, as Lovewell's fight took place on May 8, 1725, flf. 
teen years before tnis .Lieutenant Wyman was born, according 1 to the date given 
here. I here was one Wyman in the Lovewell expedition, and he was Ensign Seth 
Wyman, of Woburn, Mans., afterwards promoted to Captain, who hid command 
of the company through mo.>t of the fight, and who no doubt killed Paugus, tne 
Requaket chief. Captain Wyman died September 5, 1715, or soon after the memor- 
able tight. Therein Wyman of Goffstown, who won Mich unenviable notoriety 
early in the last century, in his " Life and Adventures " claims descent irom En- 
sign Wyman, but ids accounts contain so many other mistakes, that it is doubtles- 
false in this particular. The mother of Judge Samuel Bl-»dget, the builder of the 
canal at Amosekag Falls, was a sister of Captain Seth Wyman.— Editok. 



EARLY SETTLEMENT OF KELLEY'S FALLS. 95 

lage to shovel out the road to the Falls so that they could have 
the funeral. 

The first dam at Keiley's Falls, built by Col. Kelley, was an 
old-fashiond log-cut affair, but it answered the purpose for 
mauy years, both before, during and subsequent to the Revolu- 
tionary war, and it finally was carried away by a great freshet. 
There was a tolerably good highway from the Mast Road to the 
mills, as far as the brow of the bank on the west side of the 
river at that point, and what was known as " dugway " led 
from the top of the bluff down to the mills. This was made by 
a slant down the bank, sufficient earth being dug out from the 
upper side and thrown over toward the river to make a roadbed. 
Few horses and still fewer wagons were then in use, and nearly 
all the wheat, corn and rye to be ground was carried in sacks to 
and from the mill upon the stalwart shoulders of the old time 
farmers. There was also a passable road from the Falls to 
Piscataquog, and another to Acadia, both on the east bank. 

The whole region thereabout was densely wooded and many 
incidents have been related of encounters with wild beasts, for 
bears, catamounts or even wolves were not uncommon. Mr. 
Joseph A. Dow tells the story of a man returning home from 
the mill with a bag of meal upon his back. When ascend- 
ing the " dugway" the bank of earth on the left-hand was 
higher than his head, or as to effectually prevent sight in that 
direction, and thus without warning he was pounced upon 
by an enormous catamount, which fastened its teeth and 
claws into both man and meal sack. The weight of the 
beast threw the man to the ground, and he managed to escape, 
leaving the animal engaged in a struggle with the grist. The 
man was severely wounded, however, one of the feet of the 
catamount having struck the back of his right shoulder. The 
next morning the meal sack was found torn to shreds on the 
scene of the encounter. Mr. Dow heard his father repeat the 
story, which the elder Dow had heard from his father, who 
had seen the scars cause by the claws of the catamount, and 
also seen the limb of a great tree on which the beast had 
crouched before making the leap of more than twelve feet. 



96 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

With reference to the excavations at Kelley's Falls, indicat- 
ing the sites of old houses, it is quite likely that at least one of 
these may be referred to as the house occupied by the miller 
employed by the Colonel to run the grist-mill, and another to 
the man engaged in operating the sawmill. A third was the 
Wyman house. A fourth was occupied by Mr. Nathaniel 
George, who had a son Washington George. Both of the 
Georges as well as the Wymans, are well remembered by some 
of our older citizens, but in Seth Waman's day there was no 
mill at the Falls, and had not been for years. At a later day 
another dam was built upon the site of the first one and a pail 

factory erected by a man named White, who carried on 

the business. Mr. White also built a house near by in which he 
lived. The new dam was of wood, securely built, and was 
soon carried away by a freshet. It was never rebuilt and the 
enterprise was abandoned. This was the last dam built at 
Kelley's Falls until the present substantial stone dam was put 
in by the Electric Power Company. The old houses referred to 
disappeared many years ago, through fire or decay, except the 
building occupied by Mr. White which was removed to Piscata- 
quog in 1860, and it now stands on the south-east corner of 
Main and Douglas Streets. 

Col. George C. Gilmore informs me that when he was a boy 
he sometimes went to Kelley's Falls and played ball with other 
boys about his age who lived in that vicinity. According to 
his recollection there was not less than five houses there. 

The greater portion of the facts above narrated have been 
communicated to the writer by Mr. Joseph A. Dow, whose 
memory of persons, events and localities, as described by bis 
father and grandfather, is remarkable. His statement were 
subsequently corroborated by Mr Gilman Plumer, from knowl- 
knowledge of his own, as well as information derived from his 
father while living. 

We have in this paper endeavored to rescue from oblivion 
and put upon record the foregoing facts concerning persons 
and events, many of which had almost passed from men's minds 
and memory, and trust that the estimates placed upon their in- 
terest and value will be shared by the members of this Historic 
Association, 



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CHANDLER EASTMAN POTTER. 

A. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH PREPARED BY HIS SON, JOE H. POTTER, 

AND READ BEFORE THE MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION 

AT THE QUARTERLY MEETING, JUNE 19, 1901. 



Chandler Eastman Potter was born in Concord, N. H., in 
that portion of the town known as East Concord, March 7, 
1807. His ancestors were among the early settlers of New 
England. On his father's side he was descended from Robert 
Potter, of Lynn, Mass., who came to America from the city of 
Coventry, England, in 1630. His grandfather, Richard Potter, 
went from Ipswich, Mass., to Concord, in 1771, and in com- 
pany with his brother, purchased a tract of land on the borders 
of Turtle Pond in the parish of East Concord. His father, 
Joseph Potter, was born in 1772, and died in 1853. His 
mother, Ann Drake, was the daughter of Thomas Drake, for- 
merly of Hampton, N. H. She was born in 1774, was mar- 
ried to Joseph Potter in 1793, and died in 1844. 

Colonel Potter, the subject of this memoir, was the youngest 
of four sons. He was reared in a manner common to those who 
were born in a New England community half a century ago. At 
that period of our country's history the resources of wealth were 
not sufficiently developed to afford the new settlers those com- 
forts and conveniences of life which are at this era of national 
prosperity so widely diffused. His father, a farmer in comfortable 
but not affluent circumstances, found it impossible to afford 
him other than limited privileges of obtaining an education ; 
he was consequently employed in labor on the farm or attend- 
ing the district school. At the age of eighteen he attended the 
Academy at Pembroke, at that time and subsequently one of the 
best literary institutions in the state. Here he remained until 

97 



98 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

he was prepared for college. He entered the Freshman class 
at Dartmouth College, in Hanover, in 1827. He was a dili- 
gent student, and took a high rank among his classmates. 
After his graduation, in 1831, he opened a select high school 
in Concord, and taught until his removal to Portsmouth, where 
he took charge of the high school. He was eminently success- 
ful, easily securing the affection and esteem of his pupils, and 
gratefully remembered by many as a' kind, faithful, efficient 
teacher. 

A strong love of antiquities and nature distinguished him 
from his fellow men. He had a just poetic preception : The 
dark rocks, the beautiful lakes, the legends of the Red Men, 
were the peaceful subjects he chose for his muse. He early 
manifested a love of nature and a thirst for knowledge. He 
was especially interested in the stories of heroic deeds and 
virtues of the great and good who had figured in the history of 
the world in the past, and early collected facts worthy to be re- 
membered. He entertained profound respect and reverence for 
the patriots who fought and suffered in securing the liberties of 
our country. This sentiment of veneration for the founders of 
our institutions thus early awakened w 7 as a conspicuous element 
in his character, and had much to do in giving shape to his 
career in after life. He was also delighted in listening to ac- 
counts of the Indians who dwelt along the banks of the Merri- 
mack. He often scoured the plains in the vicinity to gather 
the bones, arrows, implements and other relics of the noble 
sons of the forest. 

In 1835 he was chosen representative to the Legislature from 
Portsmouth. On the Fourth of July of the same year, he de- 
livered an oration befor the citizen of Portsmouth. This ora- 
tion, which was subsequently published, was a powerful and 
spirited defence of the doctrine that the government should be 
administered for the benefit of the whole people and not in the 
interest of a class or a favored few. He showed with great 
force and clearness that the rights and liberties of the people 



HON. CHANDLER E. POTTER. 99 

may be wrested from them by the cunning and ambitious, if 
they fail in intelligence or cease to maintain the strictest 
vigilance. 

In 1837 he edited " The News and Literary Gazette," pub- 
lished by T. J. Whittern, and in 1838 he was editor and pro- 
prietor of the " News and Courier." During his residence in 
Portsmouth he commenced the study of the law in the office of 
Ichabod Bartlett, and subsequently finished his course with 
Pierce & Fowler, at Concord. 

In 1843 he practiced law at East Concord. Although educa- 
ted for the law, yet his taste and early habits induced him to 
relinquish his profession and engage in literary and historical 
pursuits ; removing to Manchester, he became editor and pro- 
prietor of the " Manchester Democrat," and retained this posi- 
tion until 1847. While in charge of this paper Col. Potter sup- 
ported the principles of the Democratic party. As a political 
writer he exhibited a profound knowledge of the principles of 
Government, and defended his views with so much ability and 
spirit that his journal was regarded as one of the most influen- 
tial in the State. Its columns were frequently enriched with 
able articles from his pen upon matters pertaining to sci- 
ence, and to natural history. He published many very valu- 
able original articles on the nature and habits of the wild 
beasts, birds, reptiles, and fishes, of his native state. Articles 
on education and agriculture occupied a corner of his sheet. 
His original sketches illustrating the history of New Hampshire 
and her eminent sons, gave increased interest to his paper. 

In June, 1848, he was appointed Judge of the Police Court 
in Manchester, filling the vacancy occasioned by the resigna- 
tion of Hon. Samuel D. Bell. He served in this office during 
a period of seven years. As the head of this Court he dis- 
charged his duties with marked ability and entire impartiality. 
Though a man of decided political opinions, it was the universal 
testimony of his political opponents who had relations with 
him as a Judge, that he held the scale of justice with an even 



100 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

hand, and never suffered his prejudices to influence his judg- 
ment in the slightest degree. Wherever truth would lead he 
dared to follow, and cared not if he shook the world with his 
opinions, if he scattered the clouds and let in the light. 

In 1850, one of the most remarkable cases in the annals of 
crime in the State of New Hampshire, came before him for ex- 
amination. The hearing lasted upwards of a month, and crea- 
ted intense excitement. Throughout this long and tedious ex- 
amination, Judge Potter presided with acknowledged ability 
and fairness. We bear earnest and willing testimony to the 
high public and private virtues, to his distinguished ability and 
mature judgment, his manifest desire for the attainment of ex- 
act justice and his untiring assiduity and fidelity in his labors. 
He did " with his might whatever his hands found to do." 
His dignified courtesy of manner, without distinction of per- 
son, and his readiness to subject himself rather than others, to 
inconvenience in the transaction of business, were uniform and 
unfailing. 

His wit was unbounded, and flowed from him as natural as 
his breath. Consequently he was the delight of the social cir- 
cle, especially as his humor was governed by his amiability, so 
that the feelings of his companions were never wounded by 
sarcasm or ridicule. His generosity like is wit knew no 
bounds. He often remarked, " if I give to all I shall be sure 
to hit the right." 

While holding the office of Judge, Col. Potter was editor of 
the" Farmer's Monthly Visitor/' and a weekly journal called 
the " Granite Farmer." The files of these journals bear evi- 
dence of his original powers of observation and study. As an 
agricultural writer, Col. Potter was not content to adopt the 
opinion of others. He boldly attacked many errors which pre- 
vailed in regard to this branch of industry, and made many 
suggestions of practical value. In these journals he also illus- 
trated his taste for history and biography. 



HON. CHANDLER E. POTTER. 101 

In 1854, a military association was formed in Manchester, 
called the Amoskeag Veterans. Col. Potter, with others, em- 
braced the opportunity to do honor to the memory of the mili- 
tary heroes of his native state who defended the early colonies 
and aided in establishing our national independence. This 
corps was composed of the most prominent and influential citi- 
zens of the city and state. The uniform adopted was patterned 
from that of the " Father of our Country," Washington. The 
first public parade of this corps took place February 22, 
1855, the anniversary of the birth of Washington. The event 
called together a large concourse of people from all parts of 
the State. The Governor, accompanied by his staff, and many 
distinguished citizens were present. 

In the winter after the corps was organized, Col. Potter was 
elected its commander. In December the Veterans, with full 
ranks, visited the National Capitol — Washington. The vari- 
ous cities through which they passed on their route vied with 
each other in doing honor to the descendants of the patriots 
who fought on revolutionary fields with Washington, and 
Greene, and Knox, and Sumter, and Schuyler, and other great 
chieftains. At Worcester, Springfield, New York, Philadel- 
phia, and Baltimore, they received the most flattering atten- 
tions. At all these places banquets were given in their honor, 
by the municipal authorities, and they were met and welcomed 
by the most distinguished citizens. Their visit to Philadelphia 
was especially interesting. They were welcomed by the Mayor 
and City Council, in Independence Hall, where American free- 
dom was first proclaimed. Col. Potter, in reply to the wel- 
coming speech of the Mayor, made a very eloquent, patriotic 
and thrilling address, which awakened great enthusiasm among 
those who listened to him. 

At Washington, the Veterans were the guests of General 
Franklin Pierce, the President of the United States. He gave 
a splendid banquet in their honor, at which many of the most 



102 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

eminent statesmen of the country were present. The presence 
of so many of the representative men of his native state, at 
the seat of government, so far away from his and their homes, 
of course could not be otherwise than gratifying to the Presi- 
dent, and his address, onr welcoming them to the Executive 
Mansion, was long spoken of by the Veterans, and others who 
were present, as one of the finest specimens of simple, unstud- 
ed eloquence, ever listened to on a similar occasion. The re- 
sponse of Col. Potter, who, on behalf of the Veterans, ex- 
pressed the unalloyed satisfaction which was felt on meeting 
this distinguished fellow-citizen, was no less eloquent and 
appropriate. 

During this visit of the Veterans, the warmest praises were 
bestowed upon Col. Potter, for the very able, discreet manner 
in which he acquitted himself as commander of the battalion, 
the members were proud to be led by such a commander, 
whose talents, dignity, courtesy, knowledge and ability, as 
a public speaker, entitled him to rank with the foremost men 
of the land. 

Col. Potter was a writer of superior ability and force, both 
in poetry and prose, and an enthusiastic, student of history. 
Locating at Hillsborough in 1856, he devoted a portion of his 
tine to agricultural pursuits, editing at the time the agricultural 
department of the " Dollar Weekly Mirror," published at Man- 
chester, and in writing books. His taste led him chiefly into 
historical research. As an historian, possessed of extensive 
and valuable information relating to New Hampshire, which he 
diffused with a ready and liberal pen, Mr. Potter could hardly 
be ranked second to any in the state. His "History of 
Manchester," published by himself in 1856, containing 763 
pages, octavo, is a rich storehouse of facts, respecting the rise 
and growth of that thrifty city, Incorporated into it, also, is 
valuable information relative to the provincial history of the 
state, notices of public men, and events of general interest. 
It is a work exhibiting careful research and great industry. 



HON. CHANDLER E. POTTER. 103 

His last and crowning work, the fc ' Military History of New 
Hampshire," was an arduous labor; but he diligently pursued, 
and succeeded in arresting from decay, and in disinterring 
from pay-rolls, old papers, and rubbish of antiquity, such a 
record as devoted labor might yield. This " Military History," 
extends from the first settlement in the province, 1623, to the 
close of the war with Great Britian, in 1812. This work con- 
sists of two volumes, and embraces a detailed account of all 
the wars with the Indians in which the colonists were engaged. 
It also contains a full account of campaigns of the old French 
war; also those of the revolutionary, the war of 1812, and all 
other conflicts in which New Hampshire troops were engaged 
up to that period. The work, beside, contains a very large 
number of biographical sketches of the eminent men who have 
been connected with the military organizations of the state. 
By the patient and critical research of Col. Potter, many inter- 
esting facts pertaining to the early history of the state are res- 
cued from oblivion and have been preserved for the benefit of 
coming generations. 

After his removal to Hillsborough, Col. Potter continued 
his connection with the Amoskeag Veterans, and a large por- 
tion of his time was their commander. In 1865, the members 
of the battalion showed their high respect for him by visiting 
him at his home. The corps march from the railroad station 
to the old family mansion of the late Governor Pierce and Gen. 
John McNeil, where they were met by Col. Potter. In a very 
feeling address, he expressed his pleasure at meeting them at 
his home, and his appreciation of the high compliment which 
they had bestowed upon him. Subsequently the members of 
the corps were entertained by their commander at a dinner in a 
large tent upon the grounds. 

During his later years, the Veterans, under his command, visit- 
ed Newburyport, Portsmouth, and other cities. The last visit of 
this kind was to the city of Hartford, in the autumn of 1867. 
The Veterans, on their way, were received with high honor at 



104 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

Worcester and Springfield. At Hartford, they were enter- 
tained at a banquet by the city authorites. On this visit, Col. 
Potter again acquitted himself in so able, judicious and satis- 
factory a manner that a unanimous vote of thanks was extend- 
ed to him by the members of the corps, on their return home. 

In the spring and summer of 1868, his health had become 
considerably impaired on account of his excessive literary la- 
bors. Having completed his military history of the state, he 
started, in company with his wife, in July, on a journey to the 
West. On his way out, his spirits were buoyant, and he felt 
that his general health was improving, and no one could have 
believed from his general appearance that he was so soon to be 
removed from earth. He arrived at the city of Fint, Michigan, 
on Thursday, July 30, 1868. He remained in that city, trans- 
acting considerable business, until Sunday, August 2, following. 
On that day, he received several visitors at the hotel where he 
lodged, and exhibited in his conversation the same elasticity 
and intellectual vigor for which he was always remarkable. In 
the afternoon, after writing several letters, he laid down for 
the purpose of obtaining a little rest. After sleeping a short 
time he awoke, and endeavoring to move his limbs, remarked to 
his wife that for the first time in his life he found that his mus- 
cles refuse to obey his will. It was evident that he had been 
stricken with paralysis. For a short time he retained his con- 
sciousness and was able to articulate. Physicians were sum- 
moned and everything which human ingenuity could suggest 
was done for his relief. In a few hours he became uncon- 
scious. He continued in this situation until Monday after- 
noon, August 3, when he expired. 

The coffin containing his remains arrived at Manchester, Au- 
gust 7, and it was received at the station by a deputation of 
Amoskeag Veterans. 

On Saturday, August 8, his funeral took place. The Vete- 
rans, in command of Captain William R. Patten, marched to 
the railroad station, and after receiving the remains, a line 



HON. CHANDLER E. POTTER. 105 

was formed and marched through some of the principal streets 
to the residence of Captain Charles Shedd. At this place Mrs. 
Potter and other relatives joined the procession, which then 
proceeded to the Unitarian Church on Merrimack Street. Rev. 
Joseph F. Lovering, of Concord, the Chaplain of the Veterans, 
conducted the services and made a very appropriate and im- 
pressive address. After the services at the church the proces- 
sion was re-formed and marched to the solemn music of the 
Manchester Cornet Band to the Valley Cemetery. The burial 
service was read by the Chaplain, after which all that was mor- 
tal of the beloved and honored commander of the Veterans 
was committed to the grave. 

On the return of the Veterans to their armory, these resolu- 
tions were passed : 

Whereas an inscrutable Providence has seen fit to remove 
from our midst our beloved and chosen commander, and where- 
as we have now performed the last sad writes of sepulture over 
his remains, therefore be it 

Resolved, That in the decease of Colonel Chandler Eastman 
Potter, the Amoskeag Veterans have sustained an irreparable 
loss ; that their foremost man, foremost from the beginning, 
who at all times aud under all circumstances, in sunshine and 
in storm, unselfishly sought to promote their highess welfare, is 
no more ; and, for each one of us to resolve that, in our day 
and generation, we will endeavor to follow his example, is the 
highest tribute we can pay to his memory. We moan not 
alone. Society has lost an ornament ; the state a historian, 
whose labors, yet uncompleted, in compiling and preserving 
her military history, will long outlive our feeble efforts. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered on our records, 
and a copy thereof be transmitted to the family of the deceased. 

At the time of his death the intellectual powers of Col. Pot- 
ter were in their fullest strength and activity, and he gave 
promise that he might continue his usefulness for many years 
longer. The news of his death created a feeling of great sad- 
ness among those who know him. 

Col. Potter was a man of noble personal appearance. He 



106 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

was about six feet and four inches in height, and weighed, 
when in health, about 280 pounds. He was well proportioned, 
stood erect, and his walk was firm and dignified. When marching 
in command of the Amoskeag Veterans, clothed in the old 
Revolutionary uniform, he was the theme of universal admira- 
tion among the observers. He had dark eyes, regular features, 
and a full, well-toned voice. His head was large, and, in 
phrenological language, was well balanced. His perceptive or- 
gans were very large, showing that he was a close and critical 
observer, and that his memory of facts in detail was remarkably 
strong. One of the most prominent traits in his character was 
his very warm social nature. Nothing delighted him more 
than the society of intelligent and worthy men and women, and 
his feelings towards his friends and those of a congenial spirit 
were sincere, deep and fraternal. 

He was a man "of infinite jest, of most excellent humor," 
and he had a vast fund of anecdotes ever on hand. His pow- 
ers of mimicry and imitation were so great that he could easily 
assume the voice and manner of almost any person. Hence he 
was one of the best of story-tellers. He often introduced 
into his public addresses an appropriate anecdote, and illus- 
trated his point with great effect, and on festive occasions 
his ready wit and humor never failed to create merriment. 
He was a man of great enthusiasm, and entered with his 
whole soul into any subject which he discussed. Hence there 
was a great charm in his conversation. His mind was ever 
active, and he had the power of exactly adapting himself to 
all occasions and circumstances. He also had a faculty of 
placing himself in just the proper relations to all persons 
whom he met, whatever might be their tastes or degree of 
intelligence. When among the learned, he could lead as well 
as follow, and when in the society of the ignorant and un- 
developed, he never assumed airs of superiority, but placed 
himself on the most intimate and friendly terms with them, 
and was happy if he could succeed in arousing higher and 



HON. CHANDLER E. POTTER. 107 

nobler thoughts and grander conceptions in regard to the 
world and the ever changing phenomena about them. 

He was naturally a Democrat, respected the people, and 
never desired '* to get above them," or wish for more at- 
tention from others then he was willing to extend to them. 

He became corresponding member of the New England 
Historic-Genealogical Society, March 24, 1855. In 1841, he 
was elected a member of the New Hampshire Historical So- 
ciety, and was chosen one of the Vice Presidents in 1852, 
in 1855, and 1857. In 1851, he delivered a valuable and 
interesting discourse before the Society upon the aborigines 
of the country, at the conclusion of which, on motion of 
Hon. Samuel D. Bell, a vote of thanks was extended to him. 
Subsequently he read several other interesting essays, one 
of which was on the Penacook Indians. Besides these pa- 
pers he contributed one of the chapters to Colonel School- 
craft's valuable history of the North American Indians. He 
left many unpublished manuscripts bearing upon the history of 
New Hampshire. It was his design to publish a full and com- 
plete history of the state, bringing it down to the present time. 

In 1832, he married Miss C. A. Underwood. Four children 
blessed the union, three sons and a daughter. November 11, 
1856, he married Miss Fanny Maria, daughter of Gen. John 
McNeil, of Hillsborough, formerly of the Army. His eldest 
son, Joe H., survives him. 

He left two sons. His third son, Drown, studied for the 
bar. At the breaking out of the war of the rebellion he was in 
the West, where he joined a regiment of Lancers under Colonel 
Rankin of the Canadian Parliament, which, being disbanded, he 
immediately joined the Sixteenth Regiment of Michigan Infan- 
try, under Col. Stockton, of which he was soon after appointed 
Quartermaster Sergeant. He was killed, while on duty with 
his regiment, at Garlick's Landing, by a band of guerillas. He 
was a young man of fine talents, and was much esteemed by all 
who knew him. 



JOHN FOWLER TROW. 

THE FOUNDER OF THE NASHUA TELEGRAPH. 

A PAPER PREPARED BY HENRY W. HERRICK, AND READ BEFORE 
THE MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION, JUNE 19, 1901. 



The leading daily papers of New York city, at the date of 
his death, fifteen years ago, gave a ready testimony to the 
practical ability, business capacity, and the wide influence of 
Mr. Trow, but to those who are accustomed to look upon the 
business life and success of a man as a thing of a small mo- 
ment in comparison to the man himself, such tributes seem far 
from being truly satisfactory. We believe that "a manis 
what he thinks, purposes, feels ; and that his words and ac- 
tions spring just as surely from this iuner man, as the oak 
springs from the acorn." It is, then, the circumstances of his 
life which show most readily what manner of man this was 
that we wish to present in brief. 

The ancestors of our subject were of the old New England 
Pilgrim stock, of Danvers, Massachusetts, from whence the 
family removed to Andover, an adjoining town, where John, 
the fourth child of the family, was born in 1810. In the year 
1815, his father, Captain John Trow, with two brothers, Rich- 
ard and Dudley and their families, moved to Hopkinton, New 
Hampshire, where they bought farms in the south part of the 
town, known as Farrington Corner. The family of Richard 
afterward moved to Nashua, and settled on the Nashua Cor- 
poration, while Dudley returned to Andover, Mass. At Far- 

108 




JOHN F. TROW. 



JOHN FOWLER TROW 109 

rington Corner, most of the boyhood of Mr. Trow was spent, 
and he always referred with pleasure to this period of his life 
when he was accustomed to make frequent horse-back trips to 
Amoskeag Falls, as the best place to get fine flour for the fam- 
ily supplies. At this time Gen. John Stark was living, and 
the vicinity of Amoskeag with its mills, boating traffic and 
summer fishing, was a busy place. 

The family removed to Haverhill, Mass., about 1820, and in 
1824, young Trow, at the age of fourteen, was placed as an 
apprentice in the printing office of Flag and Gould in Andover, 
a firm doing a large business in general book work, and con- 
tractors at the time for issuing all of the publications of the 
New England Tract Society of Boston, afterwards the American 
Tract Society of New York. 

It was in this office that most of the important works of the 
day in Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Semetic, etc., by such schol- 
ars as Stuart, Robinson, and Edwards, were printed ; so that 
Mr. Trow during his apprenticeship gained such a knowledge 
of these tongues, as made him ever after sought for by those 
who wished to have anything printed in these languages. 

At the close of his apprenticeship, in 1832, Mr. Trow, then 
only twenty- two years of age, determined to start a paper and 
job office in Nashua, N. H., and with his hand-press, type and 
all supplies loaded on a stout wagon started for his destination, 
himself the driver, mounted on the top of the load. 

His office was in the wooden building then known as Noyes' 
block, opposite the present city hall, and there he issued his 
first newspaper, a weekly, " The Nashua Herald." Becoming 
discouraged by the time his first volume was completed he 
sold the paper and fixtures to Rev. Andrew E. Thayer, a book- 
seller located at the corner of Main Street and Thayer's Court, 
who soon disposed of his interests to Alfred and Albin Beard. 
In the hands of the last mentioned, the paper, with its name 
changed to the " New Hampshire Telegraph," became a power 



110 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

for the Whig party in the state, for the subsequent thirty years, 
and then, with its prestige and well won reputation was trans- 
ferred to Orrin C. Moore, and its issue changed, to indued a 
daily edition. From Mr. Moore's estate the plant with all its 
belongings was passed to ifs present proprietors. 

Mr. Trow removed to New York and opened an office in 
Ann Street in 1833, and subsequently as the exigencies of 
business required moved to Broadway, Green Street, and 
finally, about thirty-two years since, to East Twelfth Street, 
where his immense establishment occupied a large part of the 
block between Second and Third Avenues, and at the time of 
his death, he gave employment, in its various departments of 
book-making, to about five hundred employees. 

For the last thirty-three years, from the date of 1853, he 
published " Trow's New York City Directory," which, aside 
from the London Directory, is probably the largest directory 
published in the world, requiring, in spring and early summer, a 
small army of canvassers. This work had yearly grown to enor- 
mous proportions, and is now probably the largest book in the 
number of pages published in this country, and with its pon- 
derous clasps of iron, and chains, presents a unique work for 
consultations in the vast commercial life of New York. After 
the decease of Mr. Trow in 1886, this concern was transferred 
to an incorporated company, with the name of 4 ' Trow Direc- 
tory Company," and listed with other organizations at the 
Stock Exchange in Wall Street. In the list of dividends, its 
net annual income a few years since, was given as $140,000. 

When Mr. Trow went to New York he was associated with 
Mr. West in the firm of West and Trow, also Leavitt and Trow, 
as publishers in Broadway ; and as they issued the best speci- 
mens or typography of that day, they were appointed printers 
to the newly-founded University of New York. 

With a few changes of partnership, he continued in the 
same branch of business during his life, being always the first 
to adopt any improvement in his art. In 1836 he imported the 



JOHN FOWLER TROW. Ill 

most complete fonts of type of the oriental languages, from 
the well-known foundaries at Tauchnitz, and as early as 1840, 
he adopted stereotyping and afterwards electrotyping as a 
regular part of his business. He not only kept ahead of 
the times in every improvement, but generously encouraged 
any invention in his line which showed the least promise of 
ultimate success. Thus he made lavish expenditures on in- 
vention, which resulted in utter failure in many cases, or 
only slight advances. Among others, he gave a very thor- 
ough trial to a type-setting machine, the pioneer of the 
present lineotype, which was so successful in his hands, that 
with it, the entire Bible was set up in sixty day, the 
labor of 416 type-setters being superseded; but owing to 
some difficulty in distributing the type, it never fully an- 
swered the expectations which were at first entertained of it. 
Mr. Trow was not, however, so absorbed by the business 
of printing, that he took no interest in other affairs ; his 
connection with the National Needle Company of Springfield, 
Mass., and with the Trow's City Directory, being too well 
known to need further attention. Years ago, he became 
deeply interested in the cause of public education in New 
York, to which he devoted much time and attention, being 
for many years the Chairman of the Board of Trustees for 
the public schools of the Eighteenth Ward. He was also 
for a long time very actively engaged as a Trustee in the 
New York Juvenile Asylum. The activities of business life 
did not, however, control the entire vitality of this busy 
man. Believing that religion, the saving power of his ances- 
tors, claimed not only the life of the individual, but that as 
a citizen he had obligations to the community at large, he 
early sought to do his duty in this line of activity. On 
first going to New York, he was for a short time a mem- 
ber of Dr. Samuel H. Cox's church, but this he soon left 
to join with others in founding a church of which Dr. Asa 
D. Smith was called to be pastor, and he was for several 



112 MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

years an elder in this church. At this time he was also 
Secretary of a large Sabbath School, of which the late 
Christopher Roberts, founder of Roberts' College, Constanti- 
nople, was superintendent. The pastor of this Rivington 
Street Mission church, Dr. Smith, will be remembered as a 
late president of Dartmouth College. When Mr. Trow moved 
to Brooklyn, he again became a member of Dr. Cox's church 
in that city, and was there both an active worker in the 
Sunday School, and an elder of the church. On his return 
to New York to live, he united with the Madison Square 
Presbyterian churchy of which Dr. Williams Adams was then 
pastor. Here he was at the head of the Sunday School, 
and an elder for over twenty years. He was an efficient 
worker in this church for the remainder of his life, and when 
our President Tucker, of Dartmouth College, left the Frank- 
lin Street church of this city, Mr. Trow was active in his 
call to the Madison Square Presbyterian pulpit. He was 
always an active man in his church life, and when President 
Tucker was called to Andover, and subsequently to Dart- 
mouth College, his successor, Dr. Parkhust, found in Mr. 
Trow an enthusiastic admirer and supporter. Everywhere 
he made warm friends and adherents by his manly, consis- 
tent, christian character, which never for an instant permit- 
ted him to swerve from the course he thought his duty point- 
ed out. It will be difficult for those who have relied upon 
Mr. Trow, to find another so upright, so trustworthy, so 
single-hearted for truth and righteousness, to fill his place. 
Mr. Trow was married about the year 1836 to Miss Cathe- 
rine Swift of Andover, Mass. His family consisted of two 
sons and three daughters, three of whom are now living. 
He died at Orange, New Jersey, August 8, 1886. 



HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

SUPPLEMENT. 

An illustrated magazine published by the Manchester His- 
toric Association, and containing the papers read at the meet- 
ings, with the Proceedings of the Society, and miscellaneous 
Items and Articles of general interest. 

Terms, in advance, 50 cents. Single copy, 15 cents. 

Exchanges should be directed to Fred W. Lamb, Librarian, 
Manchester, N. H. 

Other communications should be addressed to G. Waldo 
Browne, Editor Historic Quarterly, Manchester, N. H. 



OFFICERS OF THE HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 

At the annual meeting of the association, on the 19th of De- 
cember, 1900, the following board of officers were elected for 
the current year : 

President, Henry W. Herrick. 

Vice Presidents, Joseph Kidder, Joseph W. Fellows. 
Recording Secretary, Bayard C. Ryder. 

Corresponding Secretary, Geo. Waldo Browne. 
Treasurer, John Dowst. 
Librarian, Fred W. Lamb. 

Historiographer, Geo. W. Browne. 

executive committee. 

Henry W. Herrick, Chairman, ex-officio. 

Bayard C. Ryder, Secretary, ex-officio. 
John G. Crawford, Edwin P. Richardson, 

Josiah Carpenter, Geo. Waldo Browne, 

George C. Gilmore. 

PUBLICATION COMMITEE. 

Geo. Waldo Browne, Sylvester C. Gould, 

Francis B. Eaton, Edgar J. Knowlton, 

Fred W. Lamb. 






II 



MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Abbott, Charles J. 
Bennett, Winifred H. 
Blair, Henry W. 
Brown, Dana K. » 
Browne, G. Waldo 
Brennau, James F. 
Burnham, Edward J. 
Clapp, Allen N. 
Carpenter, Josiah 
Chandler, John M. 
Clarke, William C. 
Crawford, John G. 
Cross, David 

Currier, Edward H., M. D. 
Center, John W. 
Kidder, Joseph 
Kennard, Samuel C. 
Knowlton, Edgar J. 
Kibbee, George L. 
Kimball, Orrin E. 
Knowlton, Thomas 0. 
Jones, Edwin F. 
Lamb, Fred W. 
Locuhart, Rev. Burton W. 
Little, Cyrus H. 
McAllister, George I. 
Morrill, George E. 
Morrison, Rev. William H. 
Noyes, Walter S. 
Osgood, Anson S. 
Challis, Frank H. 



Eaton, Francis B. 
Edgerly, Clarence M. 
Elliott, George F. 
Fellows, Joseph W. 
Ferren, Eben 
Frisselle, Frank M. 
Gilmore, George C. 
Gould, .Sylvester C. 
Hadley, Charles J. 
Hall, Henry N. 
Harrison, Peleg G. 
Herrick, Henry W. 
Hubbard, William F. 
Huse, William H. 
Parker, Walter M. 
Perkins, David 
Perry, Henry S. 
Platts, Clarence M. 
Potter, Joe H. 
Richardson, Edwin P. 
Robinson, J. Frank, M. D. 
Rose, Rev. Samuel 
Rowell, Roland 
Ryder, Bayard C. 
Sturtevant, Chas. B., M. D. 
Spofford, Charles B. 
Thwyng, J. Warren 
Walker, Arthur L. 
Woodbury, Gordon 
Williams, J. Arthur 



DECEASED MEMBERS. 



Bartlett, Charles H., - 
Bunton, Andrew, 
Currier, Moody, 
Eastman, Herbert W., 
French, John C, 
Hartshorn, Fred G., 
Moore, William E., - 
Perkins, David L., - 



Died. 
Jan. 25, 1900 
June 18, 1897 
Aug. 23, 1898 
Jan. 10, 1897 
Jan. 8, 1900 
Feb. 26, 1901 
Oct. 22, 1900 
Mar. 2, 1898 



SUPPLEMENTARY MISCELLANY. II 

PROCEEDINGS. 

ANNUAL MEETING HELD DECEMBER, 19, 1900. 

First Vice-President Herrick presiding, the meeting was 
called to order at eight o'clock, p. m. The records of the Quar- 
terly meeting in September were read by Secretary Ryder and 
approved. The annual reports of the Treasurer, Librarian, 
Historiographer, and Publication Committee, were read and ap- 
proved. That of the Publication Committee showed that Part 
Three of Volume One of the Collections had been published, 
and fifty sets of the three parts had been bound in cloth. The 
bills had all been paid, and the Treasurer's report showed a 
snug sum in the treasury. The Publication Committee recom- 
mended that hereafter the Association's papers and collections 
be published in the form of a Quarterly Magazine, to contain 
forty pages each issue, providing it received sufficient support to 
warrant the outlay. The recommendation was unanimously ac- 
cepted, and the committee authorized to act their own judg- 
ment in the matter. 

Following the reading of the reports an election of officers 
for the ensuing year was made, resulting in the list already 
given. 

Mr. Eaton, on the part of the Committee, then offered the 
following : 

RESOLUTIONS ON THE DEATH OF WILLIAM E. MOORE. 

Your Committee appointed Oct. 25th, by Vice-President Her- 
rick, reports as follows : 

Whereas, The all-wise Dispenser of Events has removed 
from our midst our friend and associate, William Ellery Moore. 
We here record our brief tribute to his memory. 

Resolved, It is with deep regret that we shall see him no more, 
and that we must bid adieu to his interesting historic reminis- 
cences, and realize that our sessions will no longer be enlivened 
by the genial play of his wit, or instructed by his researches 
into the geological formation of the Merrimack Valley. 



IV MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

A student of the deep things of nature, a writer of no common 
ability, an industrious and worthy citizen, an honest and up- 
right man, leaves his family and his associates, apparently in 
the prime of his mental powers. It only remains for us to bow 
with submission to the blow, and say farewell. 

Resolved, That this note be spread upon the records, and a 
copy sent to the family of the deceased, as a token of our sym- 
pathy. 

Francis B. Eaton, ) Committee for the Manchester 
G. Waldo Browne, j Historic Association. 

Messrs. Charles J. Hadley, George E. Morrill, and Anson 
S. Osgood were elected to membership. 

After an interesting discussion in regard to life fifty years 
ago, the meeting adjourned. 



QUARTERLY REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 

As mentioned in the Annual Report, the gift of Mr. B. C. 
Ryder, comprised thirty volumes of State Reports, divided as 
follows: Bank Reports for 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 
1895. Insurance Reports, for 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 
1895, 1896, 1897, 1898. Railroad Commissioner's'Reports for 
1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896, 1897. Bureau of Labor Re- 
ports for 1894, 1895. State Board of Health, repoits for 1890, 
1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1897, 1898. 

We have also received the following : 

"Dedham Register," for January, 1901, Dedham Historical 
Society. "Publications of the Rhode Island Historical Society," 
for October, 1900, and January, 1901, from the Society. 

"Old Eliot," for January, 1901, and complete indexes for 
1898, 1899 andl900, from the Eliot, Me., Historical Society. 

"Pennsylvania Magazine," for January, 1901, from the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

Two bulletins from the Boston Public Library, "Annals of 
Iowa," for January, 1961, from the State of Iowa. 

"Memorial of William E. Moore," from C. B. Spofford. 

Vol. 2, "17th Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology," 
Washington, D. C. F. W. Lamb, Librarian. 



SUPPLEMENTARY MISCELLANY. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



Agreeable to vote of the Association, the Publication Com- 
mittee have undertaken to bring out the papers of the society 
in the style of the magazine herewith presented under the name 
of the Historic Quarterly. Instead of running several articles 
in parts to be continued in the following issues, it has been 
thought best to confine the space to one paper, which will be 
resumed in our next number. 

Thirty-two pages will be devoted to these contributions, and 
eight pages given to miscellaneous matters. This " Supple- 
ment " will be paged distinctly from the body of the magazine, 
so at the end of the volume this part of the work can be bound 
together and there will be no break in the leading articles. 

Naturally we have met with delays in arranging for the first 
number, but expect to find smoother progress with our next 
issue. It is the desire of the committee to make the Historic 
Quarterly self-supporting. In order to do this we are obliged 
to ask the members of the Manchester Historic Association to 
lend their cooperation. 

We publish six hundred copies, and it is necessary that we 
have four or five hundred subscribers. We trust each member 
will send us at least two or three subscribers. At the price 
given it will not be a difficult matter to do this. Who shall we 
hear from first? 

A sketch of William E. Moore, intended for this number, 
has been unavoidably delayed until our next issue. Sketches 
will also be given then of Gen. Charles H. Bartlett, and Mr. 
Fred Gr. Hartshorn, members which the Association has lost by 
death. 

N. B. All articles unfinished in this number will be con- 
tinued, if not completed, in our next issue to be published in 
June. 

Application made at Manchester, N. H. post-office for second 
class postal rates. 



VI MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

SITUATION IN THE MERRIMACK VALLEY. 

1740 to 1750. 

While the settlers of Tyng Township escaped any direct at- 
tack from the Indians, the settlements above, among them those 
at Pennacook and Canterbury, suffered almost constant alarm 
and frequent attacks from the red enemy. This was partly due 
to the fact that the Pennacook Indians had never molested the 
pioneers of New Hampshire, except as individuals with others, 
and that the troubles were made by the Indians of the north, 
who were encouraged to perform their depredations by the 
French in Canada. These Indians then on the war-path first 
reached the upper settlements, which became the battle-ground 
between the races. 

In 1739 alarms were raised in these places, and as early as 
1742 a Mrs. Jonathan Eastman of Pennacook was taken cap- 
tive to Canada. She was ransomed by her husband. 

The opening of the French war in 1744 greatly increased the 
danger of the frontier settlements, and it was partly to check 
the dreaded attacks of the Indians that the expedition to Louis- 
burg was made. 

The downfall of the French stronghold on Cape Breton had 
a more disastrous result than had been expected, for it turned 
the tide of war upon New England, the Indians pouring down 
the valleys of the great inland rivers witb frightful volume and 
barbarity upon the pioneer homes of New Hampshire. Thus, 
from 1724 to 1747, representatives were chosen to present the 
situation of the colonists to the governments of New Hamp- 
shire and Massachusetts. The seat of government of the first 
was at Portsmouth. 

Early in 1745 two small companies of scouts were raised to 
range the woods, one commanded by Col. Benj. Rolfe, and 
the other by Capt. Jeremiah Clough. The Massachusett gov- 
ernment sent a small company of men from Andover, and an- 
other from Billerica, who were stationed at Pennacook. Under 



SUPPLEMENTARY MISCELLANY. VII 

authority of Gov. Wentworth garrisons or forts were built at 
different points in town, where families were assigned, as was 
most convenient for them. 

Among the leaders of these " scouts," as the incursions against 
the Indians were called, was Captain John Goffe, and many of 
his company, the majority of his men, went from Old Harry's 
Townt and adjoining territory. One of these expeditions was 
made on snow-shoes in the winter of 1746. Robert Rogers, 
then a youth of nineteen, was among the scouts, and possibly 
John Stark, a year his junior, made another of the number. 
The history of these dangerous marches into a country where 
the savage enemies lurked ready to spring upon them whenever 
they found a favorable opportunity, could it be written, would 
surpass in interest any romance of imaginary adventures. 

G. W. B. 



GARRISONS. 

A garrison or stockade built by the pioneers during the In- 
dian troubles, as seen by our frontispiece, consisted of four 
stout walls built of hewn logs, and inclosing an area of several 
square rods. These walls were raised to a height equal to a 
common house, and then fitted into grooves of large posts stand- 
ing in each corner so as to be both tight and strong. Usually 
boxes were built at the corners where sentinels were stationed 
at critical times. Sometimes a garrison would be built around 
a single house, and often as many small houses would be built 
inside as there were families seeking safety here. During the 
periods when these garrisons were occupied the scattered homes 
of the pioneers were all deserted, and their furniture moved 
to these places of refuge. 

During the day the men would leave in companies, each man 
carrying his gun, and two or more acting all of the time as 
guards. In case any indication of the Indians were dis- 
covered, an alarm gun would be discharged, quickly answered 
by the report of a firearm at every garrison. Pennacook had 



{ 

VIII MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

as many as seven of these garrisons at one time, notably in 1746. 
Upon the Sabbath the men all marched, to the meeting-house 
with their families beside them, carrying their weapons ready 
for instaut use while a scout both preceded and followed 
the procession. At the church, which was also built of logs 
and of the most primitive style, the men stacked their guns 
around a post in the centre, while the good parson prayed and 
preached with his gun standing beside him. g. w. b. 



THE WOODRANGER TALES. 



A Series of Historical Novels planned to cover the colonial 
history of Northern New England, with John Stark and Rob- 
ert Rogers as heroes. By George Waldo Browne, author of 
" The Paradise of the Pacific," and " Pearl of the Orient." 

LITERARY NOTICES. 

Here is a modern Cooper, with the note of woodcraft, the vanishing touch of 
the aboriginal influence, the adventurous life of the frontier.— Boston Transcript. 

It was a happv thought for Mr. G. Waldo Browne when he planned a series of 
five volumes to be called " The Woodranger Tales," if he makes those that are to 
come as good as this, the first one. The ground he has chosen is comparatively 
fresh; for although some of the poets, Wh ttier, Mrs. Proctor, and others, have 
availed themselves of the legendary lore of New Hampshire, no such use as that 
purposed by Mr. Browne has been made of the abundant material awaiting the au- 
thor's hands. The incidents pertaining to pionee»- life are well told, and the adven- 
tures are natural, as well as entertaining. — Literary World. 

Mr. Browne is one of the most delightfully experienced raconteurs known to 
us, and he has here chosen a most picturesquely interesting hero. The scene also 
embraces a period so little treated of that it fairly bristles with elements calculated 
to charm the fancy — at least, if that fancy be at all turned toward woodcraft.— Bos- 
ton Ideas. 

This talc of early days in the " debatable ground " between New Hampshire 
and Massachusetts colonies de-erves to be one of the year's favorites. If you chance 
to live in the territory that once was the " debatable ground," the tale will be 
doubly interesting.— Portland Transcript. 

Mr. Browne shows the skill of an experienced writer in the way he weaves to- 
gether his threads of fact and fancy, and in his vigorous portrayal of such incidents 
as the leap to death from Rock Rimmon of the hunted deer, the shooting match at 
" Chestnut Corners," the great canoe race on the Merrimack, and the moose hunt 
in the region of Mount Pa vvtuckaway, we are afforded pictures <f old time life 
which will not vanish from the mind as we lay aside the book. " The Woodranger 
Tales " promise to be a valuable addition to our literature. — Manchester (N~. H.) 
Budget. 

Both " The Woodranger" and " The Gunbearer " are now 
on sale. Price $1.00 each. Address S. C. Gould, 3 Dean 
Avenue, Manchester, N. H, 



HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

SUPPLEMENT. 
Vol. II. April-June, 1901. No. 2. 

An Illustrated Magazine, published by the Manchester His- 
toric Association, containing the papers read at the meetings, 
with the proceedings of the Association, and miscellaneous 
articles and items of general interest. 

Terms, in advance, 50 cents. Single copy, 15 cents. 

Address HISTORIC QUARTERLY, 

G. Waldo Browne, Editor, 

Manchester, N. H. 



WILLIAM ELLERY MOORE. 

BY FRANCIS B. EATON. 



William Ellery Moore, third son of Henry Eaton Moore and 
Susan Dearborn (Farnum), daughter of Deacon Benjamin Far- 
num of Concord, was born November 12, 1833. His father 
was a musician, a singer and composer of note, and his mother 
was a leading soprano in one of the churches of Concord. 
When William was about five years of age the family moved 
to Cambridge, Mass., where the father died in 1841 leaving 
the widowed mother with five small children. After a short 
time they all moved to Manchester, N. H., when William began 
his education in the public schools, and then he acquired the 
printer's art which was his by inheritance as it was learned in 
the office of " Hill's New Hampshire Patriot " by his father and 
his uncles Jacob B. and John W. Moore. While he was yet 
uncertain as to a business for life a certain contractor happened 
along and offered inducements to William and several other 
young men to go to Texas and assist in building a railroad out 
of Austin. The contractor, however, failed to make good his 
promises and our young man was left without funds or friends 

IX 



X MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

a long way from home. He was in a marked degree self-reliant 
and knew how to put to good use the instruction of the Manches- 
ter schools, and so he found a chance to teach and thus kept 
his particular wolf from the door. It would be interesting if we 
could have from his graphic pen some chapters in his experience 
as a Texan schoolmaster, but nothing remains to indicate the 
nature of his struggle with Southern idioms. There are still 
preserved in certain scrap-books articles of his written for the 
press from the vicinity of Galveston of a rare descriptive 
quality aglow with local color and not without those touches of 
humor familiar to those who have listen to his papers read be- 
fore this Aassociation. They also afford proof that his habits 
of observation in nature had thus early been acquired. In 
writing of the Bay of Galveston he said that the waters would 
sometime be likely to overwhelm the city, and he is found to be 
familiar with the birds and beasts, and especially the fish, that 
dwell in the woods and waters of his temporary habitation. 
He opens with a light touch the door to the Southern k ' dolce 
feu niente " when he says, t4 In these warm sunny days when 
the shopkeeper dozes in the shade of his porch until the sun 
gets on to him and then he crosses over to the other side of 
the street." In the country great events were maturing, the 
war with its rude charms soon awakened the drowsy shop- 
keepers and broke up the school and he was unable to get away 
from the South or from its service until about September, 1865, 
on the 23d of which month he returned to Manchester and for 
the time found a home with his sister Frances who had married 
Hon. Joseph W. Fellows. He was joined here by an older 
brother John Augustine who had been a soldier in the Union 
army. After a time spent in New York working as a printer he 
acquired an interest in the " Manchester Union," published by 
Campbell and Hanscom. This partnership, however, was con- 
tinued only about a year when Mr. Moore associated himself 
with Charles J. Peaslee in the job printing business at the cor- 
ner of Elm and Market streets over the Manchester Bank. 



SUPPLEMENTARY MISCELLANY. XI 

After awhile he bought out Mr Peaslee and for twenty years 
continued to do a steady and profitable business until near the 
day of his decease. Mr. Moore did much book and pamphlet 
work and had the reputation of being a skillful and accurate 
printer. He employed few hands, the independent nature of 
his work quite suiting him, as his mind ran easily in channels 
suggested by the minute and magic letters he was handling and 
being master of his time he could on occasions indulge in those 
rambles about town, which were the delight of his boyhood and 
which he has so charmingly rehearsed in papers read before the 
Historic Association. On December 25, 1872, Mr. Moore was 
united in marriage to Martha Stevenson Miller daughter of 
David Folsom Miller and Elizabeth Woodbury Stevenson. 
Mrs. Moore at the time of her marriage was a teacher in the 
public schools of Manchester and from pure love of her profes- 
sion hasmcontinued to the present time teacher of a select pri- 
vate school for children. Thereafter the home of Mr. Moore 
was one of the happiest. The bright words and ways or these 
pretty children were to both a perpetual delight. The summer 
vacations were sometimes spent in Candia whose first physician 
Dr. Coffin Moore and his wife Mary (Eaton) Moore were an- 
cestors of William, and sometimes they went to Tamworth, 
that beautiful land of mountain and stream, the ancestral home 
of Mrs. Moore and of the worthy and famous Mr. Steven- 
son who beside his large family " picked up," educated and 
found places in the world for twenty children, among them was 
Mr. Leopold Morse not unknown in Manchester, and later a rep- 
resentative in Congress from the Boston district in Massachu- 
setts. Mr. Moore had prosecuted his historical and genealogi- 
cal studies with gratifying success in and about Hampton, and 
Salisbury, Mass. The results of which it is hoped may be 
sometime given to readers of The Historic Quarterly. 

In recent years Mr. Moore removed his printing office to near 
the corner of Amherst Street and Nutfield Lane where he was 
doing a variety of press-work at the time of his decease. His 



XII 



MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 



loss will be deeply felt by the Manchester Historic Association 
where his instructive papers were far removed from the dry-as- 
dust productions usually accredited to such gatherings. He 
attended worship at the Unitarian church of which his mother 
was a devoted member. He was a prominent member of the 
Pythian Order in which he had held the highest state offices, 
and in which his initiation took place May 1, 1871. Mr. 
Moore was a member of the Manchester Art Association, the 
Old Residents and the Historic Association and of the Man- 
chester Institute of Art and Sciences and his name and influ- 
ence could be counted on for the promotion of whatever tended 
to the intellectual or moral culture of this city. In October, 
1900, Mr. Moore had been at Woodsville on duties connected 
with the Pythian Order and returned to his home on Thursday 
the 18th of that month much exhausted, but after a little rest 
seemed better and on Saturday was about the house, taking his 
meals and reading much as usual. On Sunday, however, there 
was a change for the worse. Congestion set in followed by 
pneumonia and notwithstanding prompt medical attendance he 
lapsed into unconsciousness and died on Monday. Funeral 
services at his home on Harrison street were conducted by his 
pastor, Rev. C. J. Staples. There was singing by the Unitar- 
ian choir. The pall bearers were Charles B. Clarkson of 
Queen City Lodge, K. of P., Franklin W. McKinley of the Uni- 
form Rank, K. of P., Charles Glidden of Manesquo Tribe of 
Red Men, Charles Wingate of the Royal Arcanum, Dr. Mau- 
rice Clarke and Walter G. Africa. Many lingered at the close 
to look on the face of him they had loved so well, a love at- 
tested by the wealth of beautiful floral tributes. Interment took 
place at Pine Grove cemetery and Mr. Staples read prayers at 
the grave. 

Among friends Mr. Moore was a genial and lovable compan- 
ion but he had his serious side and he had withal a certain 
manly and upright bearing, and an ill concealed contempt for 
what he considered to be wrong that well became his knightly 
profession. 




Hon. Allen N. Clapp. 



HISTORIC QUARTERLY 

SUPPLEMENT. 

Vol. II. July-September, 1901. No. 3. 

An Illustrated Magazine, published by the Manchester His- 
toric Association, containing the papers read at the meetings, 
with the proceedings of the Association, and miscellaneous arti- 
cle and items of general interest. 

Terms, in advance, 50 cents. Single copy 15 cents. 

Address" HISTORIC QUARTERLY, 

G. Waldo Browne, Editor, 

Manchester, N. H. 



PROCEEDINGS. 

QUARTERLY MEETING HELD JUNE 19, 1901. 

President Henry W. Herrick presiding, the meeting was 
called to order at eight o'clock, p. m. The records of the an- 
nual meeting held December 19, 1900, were read by Secretary 
Ryder and approved. There was no quarterly meeting in 
March. The following persons were elected as active members : 
Hon. Geo. Byron Chandler, Mr. Albert H. Daniels, Mr. 
Stephen B. Stearns, all of Manchester. The following persons 
were elected as honorary members : Mr. Sam Walter Foss, 
Somerville, Mass., Rev. Jesse G. MacMurphy, West Derry, 
N. H., Mr. Thomas A. Dickinson, Worcester, Mass., Mrs. 
William E. Moore, Manchester, N. H. 

Mr. Joseph Kidder, Vice President, presented the Asssocia- 
tion with nine volumes of Odd Fellows Report, which were 
accepted with the thanks of the meeting. A vote of thanks 
was also extended to Mrs= William E. Moore for the valuable 
donation of the published parts of the late Mr. Moore's " Con- 
tributions to the History of Old Derryfield." These were print- 
ed in five parts, and there were about two hundred complete 



XIV MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

sets, besides a few hundred odd numbers of Parts 3, 4, and 5. 

Notice was given to amend the constitution in regard to the 
time of holding the annual meetings, and also in regard to the 
amount of fees and dues to be paid by members. 

Messrs. G. W. Browne, H. W. Herrick, and E. J. Knowl- 
ton were appointed a committee to draft suitable resolutions on 
the deceased members : Hon. Allen N. Clapp, Mr. Fred G. 
Hartshorn, and Nathan P. Kidder. 

Notice was given by the Librarian, Mr. Fred W. Lamb, that 
Mr. Thomas A. Dickinson, Librarian of the Worcester Society 
of Antiquity, had presented the Manchester Historic Asssocia- 
tion with a complete set of the published proceedings of that 
society from 1810 to dale, excepting two parts, which were 
exceedingly scarce. 

Mr. Lamb then read a paper prepared by President Herrick 
on the life of John F. Trow, a native of Goffstown ; and Geo. 
Waldo Browne read a life-sketch of Judge Chandler E. Potter. 

The meeting; then dissolved. 



ALLEN NEWCOMB CLAPP. 

BY HENRY W. HERRICK. 

The loss to the public in the death of a good citizen, whose 
labors and sympathies have always been in the direction of the 
welfare and happiness of others, should call forth a willing 
testimony of the public indebtedness, when death breaks the 
bond of union. Such is the obligation of our city from the 
loss of Allen Newcomb Clapp, a member of the Manchester 
Historic Association, who departed this life May 18, 1901. 

Mr. Clapp was identified with the commercial life of the city 
from the first years of its incorporated existence. He was 
born in Marlboro, N. H., January 2, 1837, and was the 
youngest of the seven children of Allen and Hannah Newcomb 
Clapp. The family removed to Nashua about 1840, and in 
that city most of the boyhood of our subject was spent. 
Educated in the]public schools of Nashua, and graduating from 



SUPPLEMENTARY MISCELLANY. XV 

the high school, he took a supplementary course of a year or 
two at the McGaw Institute, now known as the Military School 
at Reed's Ferry. In the year 1848 young Clapp moved to 
Manchester and was employed by Ira Barr as grocery clerk for 
two years, Returning to Nashua in 1850. Receiving a good 
offer to return in 1855 to his old employment, he accepted the 
same and has since that date, now nearly fifty years, been 
identified with West Manchester. At that time this part of the 
city was known as 'Squog or Piscataquog Village, being in the 
town limits of Bedford, and the store in which the young clerk 
was installed was the supply station of the west side of the 
river. This clerkship was held by young Allen until 1860, 
when he accepted an offer to take a partnership in the concern, 
and for fourteen years the business was successfully carried on 
by the well known firm of Barr & Clapp. The senior partner, 
being in 1884 unable, from ill health, to continue business, sold 
out his interest to the younger member of the firm. Fourteen 
years later, in 1900, Mr. Clapp relinquished the cares of mer- 
cantile life and turned the grocery business over to a new firm, 
retaining the agency of the Standard Oil Company for New 
Hampshire and Vermont. This branch of trade, which had 
been very prosperous, he held until a few weeks before his 
death. 

In politics Mr. Clapp always identified himself with the Re- 
publican party, and received many tokens of respect in the 
strength of his political friends at the polls. In his ward he 
was elected alderman in the years 1861-62, and was sent to rep- 
resent his constituents at the state legislature in 1874-75. In 
the active campaign preceding the election of George A. Rams- 
dell of Nashua for governor, Mr. Clapp was very active for 
the successful candidate, and was selected to represent his 
councillor district in the years 1897-98 in the governor's 
council. 

The services of this active man were sought by the public 
for many positions of usefulness. He was several years vice- 



XVI MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

president of the Manchester Board of Trade, in which office he 
was very efficient in advancing the commercial interests of the 
city. 

Mr. Ciapp was always untiring in his devotion to the wel- 
fare and interests of the church of his choice, the First Con- 
gregational, and loyally sought to promote its peace and useful- 
ness. He accepted the position of president of the society 
from 1893 to 1899. 

In the relations of family and social life, Mr. Clapp never 
suffered the demands of commercial or political interests to en- 
croach on what he considered the most sacred obligations. 
The sincerity of his friendships and personal attachments 
secured a large circle of friends in every sphere of his active 
life. This feature of his character is well represented in the 
records of a local newspaper, written on the day of his death : 

"Big-hearted, affable, cheery, genial, and friendly, mindful 
and tolerant of the opinions of others, helpful and obliging, 
possessing a heart filled with charity towards his fellow-men, he 
was a man among men, his winning personality endearing itself 
to hundreds of lives." 

Mr. Clapp's family record, aside from dates already men- 
tioned, includes his marriage in 1863 to Josephine M. Mason 
of Nelson, N. H. She died on December 25, 1885. The two 
children were Annie (now Mrs. Sheldon), born 1865, and 
Freddy, born 1869, dying in infancy. 

The will of Mr. Clapp, written in 1868, has since his death 
been published. Appended were two codicils, dated February 
and December, 1900. The public bequests were $1,000 to the 
First Congregational Society, $1,000 to the Young Men's 
Christian Association, $1,000 to the Elliot Hospital, all of 
Manchester. The private bequests were to his sister, Mrs. 
Esther A. Barr, and other friends, who received several thou- 
sand dollars. The rest and remainder of the large estate was 
given principally to his daughter, Mrs. Annie M. Sheldon, who 
was appointed executrix. 



SUPPLEMENTARY MISCELLANY. XVII 



RESOLUTIONS ON THE DEATH OF FRED G. HARTSHORN. 



"Time goes on, a file that wears and makes no noise," says 
an old Scotch proverb. Yet how little we appreciate its noise- 
less march. To the youth starting out in life full of hope and 
promise it is his only available capital, and never is this more 
forcibly understood than when we stand in the silent presence 
of a friend who has been suddenly stricken in the midst of his 
work with the golden years of his lite before him. Seldom is 
this brought more vividly to our minds than in the case of our 
late associate member, Mr. Fred G. Hartshorn, who was taken 
from us in the very flower of manhood without auy warning 
note. 

Mr. Hartshorn was one of the best known young men in 
Manchester, and his future was full of promise. He had made 
in his busy life many friends, and his sudden decease was met 
as a personal loss by a wide circle of acquaintances. 

Resolved, That this community has lost in the death of Mr. 
Hartshorn a young member of its society bright in intellect, 
genial in spirit, and of imspiring presence; from its business 
circle it must ever miss henceforth a willing worker filled with 
the fire and zeal of an earnest manhood. As a member of the 
Manchester Historic Association, though he was not able to 
attend our meetings as regularly as was hoped for, his genial 
presence was ever a source of pleasure. There' is no doubt 
that it was his intention to give more time to the association, as 
he was very much interested in historic matters, but time is 
never overtaken, and he did not live to meet his expectations. 
Summoned to enter the higher field of eternal work, carrying 
with him the enthusiasm and endeavor of life at its best, he 
will live in the memory of those who mourn his absence as ever 
young. 

Resolved, That the Manchester Historic Association, in bow- 
ing to the inevitable, realizes its loss and feels deeply the 
affliction. 

Resolved, That the association extends its sympathy to the 
sorrow-stricken wife in her great bereavement, commending 



XX MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

was not dissolved until two days after the storm." Some of 
the hailstones were said to be three or four inches in length. 
— Farmer's " Catechism of New Hampshire," published 1830. 

The first earthquake recorded in the history of New Eng- 
land was on the 1st of June, 1638, when the earth shook with 
such violence that in some places the people could not stand in 
the street without difficulty and the most movable articles in 
the houses were thrown down. — Farmer's " Catechism of 
Hampshire," published 1830. 

The first public execution in New Hampshire was on the 27th 
of December, 1739, when Sarah Simpson and Penelope Ken- 
ney were executed at Portsmouth for the murder of an infant 
child. — Farmer's " Catechism of New Hampshire," published 
1830. 

The greatest snow ever known in New England was that 
which fell in February and March, 1717, to the depth of eight 
feet on a level. — Farmer's u Catechism of Hampshire, New 
published 1830. 

Arrived from Bedford, N. H., canal boat Experiment, Isaac 
Riddle, captain, via Merrimack river and Middlesex canal. 
Boston Centinel and Federalist, 1812. 



william Mckinley. 

HIS LIFE AND WORKS. BY GEN. CHARLES H. GROSVENOR. 

President's life-long Friend, Comrade in war, and Colleague 
in Congress. Was near his side with other great men when his 
eyes were closed in death. Followed the bier to the National 
Capitol and to Canton. The General requires a share of the 
proceeds of his book to be devoted to a McKinley Monument 
Fund. Thus every subscriber becomes a contributor to this 
fund. Millions of copies will be sold. Everybody will buy it. 
Orders for the asking. Nobody will refuse. Elegant Phpto- 
gravure Portrait of President McKinley's last picture taken at 
the White House. You can easily and quickly clear $1,000 
taking orders. Order outfit quick. Chance to prove success, 
secure yearly contract and become Manager. Send 12 2-cent 
stamps to pay expense of wrapping, packing, and mailing 
elegant prospectus. Taking 10 to 50 orders daily. 50,000 
copies will be sold in this vicinity. 

Address The Continental Assembly, Corcoran Bldg., Opp. 
U. S. Treasury, Washington, D. C. 




Fred G. Hartshorn, 



HISTORIC QUARTERLY 

SUPPLEMENT. 

Vol. II. October-December, 1901. No. 4. 

An Illustrated Magazine, published by the Manchester His- 
toric Association, containing the papers read at the meetings, 
with the proceedings of the Association, and miscellaneous arti- 
cle and items of general interest. 

Terms, in advance, 50 cents. Single copy, 15 cents. 

Address HISTORIC QUARTERLY, 

G. Waldo Browne, Editor, 

Manchester, N. H. 



PROCEEDINGS. 

QUARTERLY MEETING HELD SEPTEMBER, 18, 1901. 

President Henry W. Herrick presiding, the meeting was 
called to order at the Board of Trade Rooms at eight o'clock, 
p. m. The records of the June quarterly meeting were read 
and approved. The presentation by Mrs. William E. Moore 
of further copies of the late Mr. Moore's " Contributions to 
the History of Old Derryfield," was accepted with the thanks of 
the association. It was voted to amend the constitution by 
making the membership fee one dollar, instead of two dollars 
as heretofore, and to make that the only due required of new 
members for that year. The treasurer was authorized to em- 
ploy a suitable person to collect dues, and to pay for said ser- 
vice as he thought best. Resolutions on the death of Fred G. 
Hartshorn were read by G. Waldo Browne, and adopted. One 
hundred and eighty-two names of applicants for membership 
were proposed by Captain David Perkins and they were voted 
upon and elected. A vote of thanks was given to Captain 



XXII MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

PerkiDs for his earnest and successful work. The meeting 
then adjourned to October 16, 190), at eight o'clock, p. m. 

At the adjourned meeting Mr. Joseph Kidder gave an ad- 
dress upon ''Early Recollections of Manchester," which 
proved interesting and valuable. This address will be print- 
ed in the next volume of the Quarterly. Twenty-seven addi- 
tional names of applicants for membership were proposed by 
Captain Perkins and voted in as members. 

ANNUAL MEETING HELD DECEMBER 18, 1901. 

The annual meeting of the Manchester Historic Association 
was held in the Board of Trade Rooms, President Herrick pre- 
siding. The reading of the minutes of the previous meeting 
was omitted. Forty new members were elected, and the 
reports of the respective commitees were made and accepted. 
The report of the Treasurer showed that at the beginning of 
the year the 

Cash on hand was, 
Received from advertising, 
Publications sold, 
Dues from members, 



Paid out, 
Cash on hand, 



$16 


85 


19 


50 


18 


15 


185 


00 


$162 


93 


76 


57 



$239 50 



$239 50 



The report of the publication committee showed that the four 
numbers of the quarterly aggregating 160 pages, with sixteen 
portraits and illustrations, had been printed at a cost of $151.40, 
while there had been received from subscriptions and advertis- 
ing $44.65. The publication is now on an assured footing, 
with a promise of doing excellent work in the future. 

The report of the Historiographer recalled the fact that the 
association had suffered the loss of four members during the 
year, namely, Mr. Fred Gr. Hartshorn, who died February 26 



SUPPLEMENTARY MISCELLANY. XXIII 

aged 35; Captain Nathan P. Kidder, who died May 17, aged 
57 ; Hon. Allen N. Clapp, who died May 18, aged 57 ; Mr. 
John M. Chandler, who died December 5, at the age of 67. 

The report of the Librarian showed the growth of the library 
during the year, and was as follows : 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 

The library has received by gift the following publications : 

Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Knights of Pythias of 
New Hampshire for 1900, from C. B. Spofford. A complete 
set, lacking only two numbers, of the Proceedings of the Wor- 
cester Society of Antiquity, from the librarian, Mr. Thomas A. 
Dickinson. The donation numbers about 25 pamphlets in all 
and is a very rich addition to our library. 

By exchange we have received the proceedings of the Anti- 
quarian Society of Stockholm, Sweden, complete, comprising 
about 25 pamphlets and also a catalogue of their museum. 

We have also received four " Bulletins" from the Boston 
Public Library. Report of the City of Manchester for 1900. 
" The Old Royal! House, Medforcl," from the Sarah Bradley 
Fulton Chapter, D. A. R., of West Medford, Mass. Proceed- 
ings of the Manchester Institute of Arts and Sciences for 1900. 
" Old Eliot" for April and July, 1901, from Augustine Cald- 
well. Part I, 17th Annual Report, Bureau of American Eth- 
nology. Part I, 18th Annual Report, Bureau of American 
Ethnology. Annual Report of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation for 1899, two volumes. Chase's History of Haverhill, 
Mass. Sewall's History of Woburn, Mass. Life and Times 
of Red Jacket, by W. L. Stone. "Annals of Iowa," for 
April, July, aud October, 1901. from the State of Iowa. 
tl Pennsylvania Magazine," for April, July, and October, 1901, 
from the Pennsylvania Historical Society. Bibliography of 
New York Colonial History and Bibliography of the Nether- 
lands ; Renaissance Art of the 15th and 16th Centuries; and 
History of the Latter Half of the Fifteenth Century, trom 



XXIV MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

the State Library of New York. " Dedham Register," for 
April, and July, 1901, from the Dedham, Mass., Historical 
Society. Proceedings of the Essex Institute, of Salem, Mass. 
Contributions of the Lowell Old Residents' Society, Vol. 6, 
No. 3. Report of Tale College for 1900. New France, by 
James Phinney Baxter. Historical Writings, by Orasmus B- 
Marshall. Two rare volumes bearing dates of 1690 and 1691, 
from Dr. Charles P. Hildreth. F. W. Lamb, Librarian. 

The election of officers for the ensuing year being next in 
order, it was voted on motion that a committee of five be ap- 
pointed by the President to bring in a list of nominations. 

The committee consisted of Josiah Carpenter, Ossian D. 
Knox, George C. Gilmore, Arthur L. Walker, and Roland 
Rowell. Their list of nominations, as submitted, was elected : 

President, Henry W. Herrick ; Vice-Presidents, Joseph Kid- 
der and Joseph W. Fellows ; Treasurer, John Dowst ; Re- 
cording Secretary, Bayard C. Ryder ; Corresponding Secretary, 
George W. Browne; Librarian, Fred W. Lamb; Historio- 
grapher, Ossian D. Knox; Executive Committe Josiah Carpen- 
ter, George C. Gilmore, John G. Crawford, Edwin P. Rich- 
ardson, and Arthur L. Walker ; President and Secretary, ex- 
officio. Publication Committee, George Waldo Browne, S. C. 
Gould, Edgar J. Knowlton, Francis B. Eaton, and Roland 
Rowell. 

Notice was given of a proposed amendment to the constitu- 
tion to change the day and date of meeting from the third 
Wednesday to the first Monday of the month, action to be 
taken on the matter at the next quarterly meeting. The mat- 
ter of securing suitable rooms for the association, and the 
question in regard to obtaining a speaker and having a public 
meeting some time during the winter, were left to the Execu- 
tive Committee. 

At the conclusion of the business of the meeting a paper 
prepared by Mr. Orrin H. Leavitt upon " The Old Bridge- 



SUPPLEMENTARY MISCELLANY. XXV 

Street Pound," in the absence of the author, was read by Mr. 
George W. Browne. At the close of the paper, in conformity 
with its suggestion that the old landmark be preserved, it was 
moved by Captain Perkins that a representative of the execu- 
tive committee request the city authorities to make the restora- 
tion as far as possible. The motion prevailed, after which it 
was voted to adjourn. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

The Manchester Historic Association has now an active 
membership of 326, and with nearly one hundred dollars in 
its treasury and considerable moie than that sum due from 
fees of new members, the prospects of the society are flattering. 
A most harmonious election of officers for the new year was 
made, and it is certain the future volume of the Collections 
will prove more valuable than those which have been pub- 
lished. As an inkling of what is to be expected, the following 
partial list is offered ; all of which will be presented as rapidly 
as time and opportunity will permit : 

Life of Hon. Geo. W. Morrison, By Hon. Joseph W. Fellows 
Life and Times of Robert Rogers, Geo. W. Browne 

The Hessians in the Merrimack Valley. 
Lake Massabesic in History and Tradition, 
First Shoe Industry in Manchester, Clarence M. Platts 

The Old Bridge-Street Pound, Orrin H. Leavitt 

William Stark, Ranger and Loyalists, Geo. W. Browne 

Gardner's Survey of the Merrimack in 1638. 
Sketch of Moses Norris, Henry N. Hurd 

Stone Age of the Merrimack. 

r\iA TV/T-n iu -n 11 r» j ( Clarence M. Platts 

Old Mill on the Falls Road, 1 , , S7 rT TT 

( and Wm. H. Huse 

The Stark Homestead in Dunbarton, Bayard C. Ryder 

Personal Recollections of the Homes on the River Road 

Seventy-Five Years Ago, An Old Resident 

Further Facts in the Life of Hon Samuel Blodget, 

George W. Browne 



XXVI MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

The new volume of The Historic Quarterly will open with 
Major James F. Briggs's very able address on the " Life and 
Speeches of General James Wilson." 

In connection with the Proprietors' Records of Tyng Town- 
ship, given in this volume, it may not be out of place to say, 
that while the expense incurred in trying to settle the grant 
and hold it as shown by the records, was extremely heavy, it 
should be borne in mind that money at that period was greatly 
depreciated from its face value. 

Mr. Joseph B. Felt in his " Massachusetts Currency" for 
the colonial era says that from 1724 to 1727 a pound was 
worth of our present decimal system $1.36, and a shilling 
about seven cents. Silver was worth about seventeen cents an 
ounce. Indian corn was rated at four shillings a bushel, and 
wheat at eight shillings. 

The partial restoration of what the grantees had lost by 
allowing them a township in Maine, as mentioned, was the 
common treatment of the Massachusetts Courts toward her 
disappointed colonists following the settlement of the boundary 
disputes between that province and New Hampshire. Among 
other examples may be noted that of the grant of a township 
in Oxford County, Maine, by the name of New Suncook, to 
satisfy the heirs of the grant of Lovell's town, or Suncook, to 
Captain Lovewell and his men. This new grant was made 
February 5, 1774, and upon the incorporation of the town 
November 15, 1800, the name was changed to Lovell, in 
honor of the intripid leader of one of the most memorable bat- 
tles in the history of the old New England frontier. 

The map referred to as having been made from the surveys 
of Colonel Blanchard is still kept at the state house in Con- 
cord, in a fairly good condition. It is valuable as being the 
most complete and authentic map of the province of that time. 

The following dates of the wars of New England, which 
really originated in the mother country, may prove of value to 



SUPPLEMENTARY MISCELLANY. XXVII 

someone: King William's War, 1689, the first blow in New 
England being struck by the French and their Indian allies 
against the English settlement of Dover, when a score of per- 
sons were killed, among them the venerable Major Waldron, 
while thirty persons were made captives ; Queen Anne's War, 
1702, which brought about the fearful depredations of the In- 
dians during the following summer, and caused the colonists to 
make their numerous raids upon the Indians, one of the most 
memorable of which was Tyng's snow shoe expedition in the 
winter of 1703-4, already described as belonging to the history 
of the Tyng grant; King George's War, 1744, one of the 
fruits of which was the capture of Louisburg on June 17, 1845 ; 
the American Revolution, 1776, whose battles, Bunker Hill and 
Bennington, were largely fought by sons of New Hampshire, 
It seems appropriate at this time and place for us to quote 
the following news item from one of the local papers, the 
"Mirror and American " : 

" Under the auspices of the Society of Colonial Dames of 
Massachusetts, a bronze tablet has been unveiled at Tyngsboro, 
recognizing the friendship of the Indian chief Wannalancet for 
the white settlers of this region. The tablet is affixed to a 
bowlder in front of the Drake house, so called, and near the 
little old burying-ground of the Tyng family, about a mile 
south of Tyngsboro village. 

Among those present were Joseph Laurent, chief of the St. 
Francis Indians, St. Francis River, Canada, and the Misses 
Melinda and Charlotte Mitchell, lineal descendant of Massasoit. 
Miss Melinda Mitchell was in costume. This is the inscription 
on the tablet : 

In this place lived during his last 

years, and died in 1696 

WANNALANCET, 

Last Sachem of the Merrimack River 

Indians, Son of Passaconaway, 

like his father a faithful 

friend of the early New 

England Colonists. 

Placed by the Massachusetts Society 

of Colonial Dames. 



XXVIII MANCHESTER HISTORIC QUARTERLY. 

That Wannalancet was friendly toward the settlers is estab- 
lished by the discoveries among the province laws and archives 
at the state house by Mr. Abner C. Goodale of Salem. Upon 
the records named this action of the Colonial Dames is princi- 
pally founded. The friendly aid of Wannalancet was invoked 
by special authority. He was brought to the colony after the 
retirement of his tribesmen to the northward aDd placed in the 
care of Captain John Tyng of Dunstable. Through King 
Philip's War, 1675, Wannlaancet was of signal service in 
warning the settlers of raids and in securing immunity for 
those captured." 

FRED G HARTSHORN. 

Among the younger members of the Manchester Historic 
Association Mr. Fred G. Hartshorn was held in high esteem, 
and his early and sudden death brought sorrow to a wide circle 
of acquaintances. 

Mr. Fred Gilman Hartshorn was born in Greenfield, New 
Hampshire, September 22, 1864. He was the elder son of 
Samuel Gilman and Myra Mooar Hartshorn, and died on Feb- 
ruary 26, 1901, in his 37th year. He had been for several 
years manager of the New England Department of the United 
States Savings and Loan Company of St. Paul, Minn., with his 
office in the Kennard Building. He came to Manchester in 
1882, and was employed by Mr. William P. Goodman, book- 
seller and stationer, and also by Higgins Brothers, furniture 
dealers, and in 1892 he engaged in the business which he fol- 
lowed untill his decease. 

He was united in marriage to Minnie L. Tasker on June 30, 
1896, and they had their home on Liberty Street in this city. 

Several weeks prior to his. death Mr. Hartshorn had an at- 
tack of the grip but bad rallied sufficiently to be about, and early 
in the afternoon of the 26th of February, he went to the 
Y. M. C. A. Rooms, on Amherst Street, and while there was 
stricken with apoplexy, expiring about two o'clock. 

Mr. Hartshorn was a man of fine presence, genial and cour- 
teous in his associations. He was active in the social and 
business circles of the First Congregational Church and an 
earnest worker in the Young Men's Christian Association. 



(?OQtributioi)s 



TD THE 



JHistory of Old Derryfield, 



BY WILLIAM ELLERY MOORE. 



PART FIRST. 



PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



TO THE 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD, 

NEW .HAMPSHIRE. 

TOPOGRAPHY AND LANDSCAPE 



AS MODIFIED BY TORRENTS FROM MEETING ICE-FIELDS, TOGETHER 

WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF EARLY FLOODS AND OTHER 

LOCAL EVIDENCES OF A GLACIAL EPOCH. 



BY WILLIAM E. MOORE. 



A PAPER READ BEFORE THE 



MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 



PART I. 



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR. 



PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. 



Entered according to Act of Congress 

in the 

Office of the Librarian at Washington, D. C. 

1896. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD 



BY WILLIAM E. MOORE. 



CHAPTER I. 

PRELIMINARY — LANDMARKS— ROCK RIMMON — THE PINNACLE — MERRI- 
MACK — PISCATAQUOG — BLACK BROOK — COHAS — MASSABESIC 
LAKE — SPECIAL FEATURES, ETC. 

THE conscientious and self-respecting historian will always 
aim at relating not only the truth but the whole truth. His- 
tories of Derryfield have been written, but none of them began 
at the beginning. It does not need to be added that very much 
was omitted. 

The present undertaking will give some account of pre-his- 
toric times and will be brought down to date. The whole period 
covered embraces more than a thousand centuries — how much 
more cannot with certainty be computed. In the presence of 
this time-problem the wisest are ignorant, since the facts with 
which we have first to deal refer to times so remote as to make 
ancient history a tale of yesterday The story to be related in 
these opening chapters relies for evidence upon no witnesses — 
there were none — neither upon myth, legend or tradition. Our 
sole authorities are certain eloquent " sermons in stones " and 
sundry decipherable "books in the running brooks." These, 
however, supply ample and conclusive testimony. 



4 contributions to the 

All the available sources of information will be examined, and 
the animal, vegetable and mineral creation interrogated. No 
stone will be left unturned, no field unploughed, no plant or 
animal permitted to escape. 

LANDMARKS. 

For the present we defer giving details of the early occupa- 
tion and settlement of Derryficld and confine our view to some 
prominent features of its natural scenery and topography. To 
present these in intelligent order it will be necessary to broaden 
our horizon to include the entire landscape, from the highlands 
on the east to the mountains rising west of the Merrimack. 

From the river valley the ground ascends rapidly at first, then 
broadening into an extensive and nearly level plain, and again 
mounting abruptly to the height of land in the eastern fore- 
ground. Here the chief elevations are known as Wilson, Bald, 
and Oak or Heath-Hen hills. From these highlands a magnifi- 
cent panorama salutes the eye, and as the sun illuminates the 
picture a thousand points of splendor punctuate the wide and 
varied scene. 

To the north may be seen Mt. Belknap and the Gilford moun- 
tains, as well as a portion of the Ossipee and Sandwich groups, 
while with favoring conditions glimpses of the Franeonia range 
may be seen without a glass. To the northwest is a distinct 
view of Kearsarge and Ragged mountains, while in Vermont 
the distant crest of Ascutney breaks the line of the horizon. 
Westward and trending south we are confronted with Crotchet 
and Temple mountains, dominated by Pack and Grand Monad- 
nock, the blue lift of Wachuset in Massachusetts closing the 
grand sweep as if of a hemisphere. 

But these, with others scarcely less conspicuous, form only 
the background of the picture, for nearer and in front stand the 
Uncanoonucks and Joe English, flanked by the Dunbarton, 
Mount Vernon and Lyndeborough ridges, while nearer still are 
the rounded slopes of Hackett, Shirley, Scribner's, and Yacum 






HISTORY OF DEKRYFIELD. 5 

hills, with a host of lesser eminences completing the details of 
a picturesque landscape, which for quiet and restful beauty is 
unrivalled in southern New Hampshire. 

Ancient Derryfield included the whole riverfront, from above 
the falls at Amoskeag on the north to below Goffe's falls on the 
south, and the mile-limit to the east crossed the summit of 
Wilson hill. 

ROCK RIMMON. 

Directly west of Amoskeag falls, upon a level plateau extend- 
ing from the ancient river terrace, Rock Rimmon lifts its solid 
shoulder of gneiss above the plain. This rock is an object of 
great interest, attracts many visitors, and offers a most superb 
view of the Piscataquog and Merrimack valleys. The easterly 
escarpment is a sheer and inaccessible precipice of one hundred 
and seventeen feet, the crest reaching an altitude of more than 
three hundred feet above the bed of the river.* The summit is 
easily reached from the western and northern slopes. 

THE PINNACLE. 

Eight miles away to the north, on the west bank of the Mer- 
rimack, is another bald and rocky peak, mounting also from a 
terrace-plain, rising even higher than its Derryfield rival. Just 
west and touching the base of the Pinnacle is a small lake. The 
water is very deep, is popularly believed to have no bottom, and 
in area and contour is said to exactly match the outline of the 
Pinnacle itself. It has been contended that this great mass of 
rock was lifted bodily from the bed of the lake and the hole 
afterwards filled with water. When the Pinnacle slides back to 
its old quarters we may the more readily assent to this theory. 
A substantial observatory hass been erected upon the summit, 
from which exceptionally fine views may be had. 

* The exact figures, taken from the field-notes of the City Engineer, are as follows : Top 
of rock above city elevation, 296.^5 feet ; base above the same level, 179. S3 feet, and about 95 
feet above low-water mark at Amoskeag eddy. Extreme height of rock, 116.53 feet. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 



THE MERRIMACK. 



This river is now a continuous stream from its sources to the 
sea, but there is little doubt that the present valley was once 
filled with a great chain of lakes, extending from the Winne- 
pesauke on the north to an indeterminate point to the south, 
certainly as far as ancient Dunstable. The evidence in support 
of this view is conclusive and will be considered in detail here- 
after. Along the course of the river the ancient terraces form 
a conspicuous feature. 

THE PISCATAQUOG. 

This river enters the Merrimack on the west bank, some two 
miles below Amoskeag falls. The valley extends in a north- 
westerly direction, passing to the west of Rock Rimmon.. The 
old terraces on either bank are remarkable. 

BLACK BROOK. 

This considerable water-course has its source in the Dunbar- 
ton hills, twelve miles away, flows southeasterly and enters the 
Merrimack on the west bank a short distance above Amoskeag 
falls. The significent relation of this now somewhat reduced 
stream to our history will become more apparent as the record 
proceeds. 

COHAS BROOK. 

Aside from a number of inconsiderable brooks and rivulets, 
this is the only local water-way remaining unnoticed. It is the 
outlet of Massabesic lake and enters the Merrimack on the east 
bank, immediately below Goffe's falls. The foregoing, therefore, 
comprise all the principal water systems properly belonging to 
the Derryfield map, or which are of importance as relating to 
our present inquiry. 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 7 

MASSABESIC. 

Four miles to the east, and wholly within the bounds of an- 
cient Chester, this fine body of water lies in a series of bays, so 
joined by necks and separated by headlands as to include a shore- 
line of not less than thirty-six miles. From this lake the great 
manufacturing city of Manchester derives its water-supply. The 
Massabesic is dotted with numerous islands and surrounded by 
highlands, conspicuous among them being a splendid rocky 
promontory on the Auburn shore, Minot's ledge, and the moun- 
tain in Chester familiarly known as the " Devil's Den." The 
old water-marks plainly show a much higher lake-level in a not 
remote period, the water then wholly covering the present high- 
way and involving the out-lying meadows and lowlands. Several 
smaller ponds are found within the limits of ancient Derryfield, 
but none calling for more than passing recognition. 

SPECIAL FEATURES. 

Over and above the more prominent landmarks of the terri- 
tory we have attempted to describe there are in addition a num- 
ber of less conspicuous but even more striking points of interest. 
Chief among these are the following : 

1. The great clay deposits about the Hooksett Pinnacle, and 
extending north, especially on the east bank of the river. 

2. The enormous accumulations of sand upon the site of Der- 
ryfield proper. 

3. The stupendous bulk of water-worn stones and gravel, high 
above modern water levels, in ancient terraces and moraines. 

4. Certain remarkable instances of rock-wear performed by 
pre-historic streams. 

5. Travelled blocks and rock-fragments transported from dis- 
tant centres of dispersion. 

6. Curious survivals of tropical trees and shrubs. 



8 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

These, with added evidences of the work done by water in 
another age, will be considered in the proper place, when it will 
be shown that these wonderful monuments now bear mute but 
unimpeachable testimony to the existence of powerful and long- 
continued currents, flowing- in so vast a volume as to make the 
proudest river of to-day a pla\ thing. These propositions, with 
the facts referable to them, are as certain as anything in Deut- 
eronomy, but we regret to sa} r there are still otherwise intelli- 
gent people who refuse to believe them. The Agnostic claims 
that he can know nothing, and is aware of it ; but even such 
an one is less difficult to convince than he who likewise knows 
nothing but has no knowledge of it. 

Should it be desired to prove beyond question that New Eng- 
land was once the scene of volcanic activity, a piece of Roxbury 
pudding stone would be sufficient. So, in reference to our pres- 
ent purpose, any strip of land in New Hampshire, with hills 
and valleys and water-courses, will serve for illustration. Such 
a region was Derr\ field — a territory one mile wide and eight 
miles long — ranging upon the Merrimack, and now the river- 
front of Manchester. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE AGE OF ICE-WATER — GRADUAL DISAPPEARANCE OF WATER — EARTH 
MAKES STEAM — A WITNESS OR TWO. 

Stated by the best obtainable evidence, this zone of ours lias 
passed through at least one — possibly several < — glacial epochs. 
We have now to consider only the last, the effects of which are 
still to be seen about us on every hand, when sought for with 
asking eyes. 

The gl.cial and inter-glacial theories, as now understood and 
generally accepted, offer a wonderfully inviting field for study. 
No time will be lost in any discussion of the causes which made 
necessary an age of ice, and we shall now simply illustrate our 
history with some pictures showing the action of water, notably 
of streams proceeding from rapidly melting ice-fields. 

We are tempted to record much matter not who]])' within the 
scope of our story ; we find it difficult to avoid asking and even 
attempting some answer to questions which troop about and 
beset us at every turn, but must be content with a few prelim- 
inary generalizations. 

We may conceive Earth in its desolation, its first-born naked- 
ness, before desire arose, absolutely without life other than that 
which may have been potential. We then reach a later period in 
which there was indeed life, existing in low forms, maintained 
with difficulty, intermittent and migratory. Still later we recog- 
nize a true life-bearing age, in which plants and animals inclus- 
ive of man appeared, moved and died. 

To the foregoing it seems necessary to add that as there were 
life-bearing and non-life-bearing periods so there were non-life- 
producing as well as life yielding zones. Moreover, that climatic 
changes in the same zone rendered it now fit now unfit for life, 
and this entirely without reference to elevation and subsidence 



10 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

or any other so-called cataclysmal operation of the crust of our 
planet. We intend to mean that the surface of solid Earth has 
been by turns so blasted with fire, devastated by ice, and deluged 
with water, that for long periods of time and large continental 
areas life of most sorts was out of the question. 

Our orthodox friends will observe that we have no wish to 
ignore the flood ; on the contrary, we insist upon several and 
as many rainbows as called for. 

THE DISAPPEARANCE OF WATER. 

We assert with some confidence that there was once much 
more water upon the surface of our globe than at present ; the 
oceans were larger, the inland waters and streams of greater 
volume. Should this position need reinforcement let us admit, 
as it seems we must, that the earth once nourished no life, either 
animal or vegetable, and we have at once nameless millions of 
fluid tons to be somehow accounted for. Nor can it be claimed 
that the atmosphere then and always held moisture in suspen- 
sion as now, or that absorption by percolation was a process of 
the earlier as well as of the later stages of creation. We are 
thus brought face to face with a curious problem : Without 
plants or animals, with an atmosphere totally rejecting it and 
the earth stubbornly declining to take it in at the pores, what 
was the status of water and where its abiding place ? 

THE EARTH MAKES STEAM. 

Not to be entirely in the dark or beyond our depth, we may 
hint at the appearance and concede the existence of steam in 
the earlier cycles and must give it a place as one of the prime 
factors in the complicated processes of evolution, and to this 
day and hour a powerful agent in its still uncompleted opera- 
tions, to which it is not our present purpose to refer. Our read- 
ers are expected to comfortably fix upon dates, either as to the 
appearance or duration of the phenomena described or to be 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. II 

described in these opening chapters. We say only and stand by 
by it, that there was fire, water and steam, fume of gas and 
molten flood, ice and snow, by turns and altogether, in such 
horrible fashion as no new nor old notion of hell can illustrate. 
If we seek for evidence, present and eloquent witnesses await 
our interrogations. 

Let us first suppose such a state of things as has been hinted 
at, when there was this preponderating amount of surface water ; 
that following this period, in necessary sequence, the effects of 
evaporation and condensation succeeded ; that in simple obedi- 
dience to cosmical laws milder methods of dissipation of energy 
were made possible, and that finally, during a period of intense 
cold, the whole or nearly the whole maximum mass of water at 
this parallel was converted into ice, and we are furnished with 
at least a tentative theory if not a working hypothesis. 

One familiar with the testimony of the rocks and the environ- 
ment of our modern water-systems cannot doubt that something 
much like this did happen ; that the very zone we now inhabit 
was once and probably more than once delivered over to the 
rigors of an arctic winter. In the light of the highest and best 
equipped recent scientific authorities no prime fact is more 
rightfully believed than that a large portion of this now temper- 
ate belt was once deeply covered with ice, and for so vast a 
cycle that it must have been regarded as perpetual by the people 
of that age, if people there were. 

A WITNESS OR TWO. 

Again without pausing to discuss the causes which brought 
about this condition, and not even considering the possibility of 
its recurrence, it assuredly follows that such an age of ice could 
not and did not come and go without leaving its mark. 

During a long and busy life Prof. Agassiz accumulated a vast 
amount of information as to the agency of glacial action in pro- 
ducing geological effects. A student of glaciers for forty years, 



12 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

and growing up in a glacial region, he was familiar with their 
phenomena. He says: " As soon as geologists have learned 
to appreciate the extent to which our globe has been covered 
and fashioned by ice, they may be less inclined to advocate 
changes of level between land and sea, whenever they meet with 
the evidence of the action of water." 

Charpentier speaks of "perpetual snow-sheets and glaciers 
reaching the sea, as far down as the middle of the present tem- 
perate zone." Prof. Gunning characterizes the New England 
ice-sheet as "colossal." Prof. Newbury, of Columbia College, in 
a review of the evidence, reaches this conclusion : ""The glac- 
iers and snow-fields of Greenland stretched continuously down 
the Atlantic coast, to and below New York. * * * * The 
highlands of New England were completely covered and proba- 
bly deeply buried in sheets of ice and snow." Prof. Dana says 
the ice-sheet was "semi-continental," and adds: "The height 
to which scratches and drift occur about the White Mountains 
proves that the upper surface of the ice in that region was 6,000 
or 6.500 feet in height, and hence that the ice was not less than 
5,000 teet in thickness over the whole of that part of northern 
New England. Facts also show that the surface height in south- 
western Massachusetts was at least 2,800 feet, in southern Con- 
necticut i.oco feet or more." He again remarks that "the 
continent underwent great modifications in the features of the 
surface through the agency of ice," and points out in great 
detail the effects produced by glacial torrents. 

It would be easy to multiply authorities, but since they can 
be consulted by questioners and doubters we will not forestall 
their studies. We assume, then, that there is no one prime 
fact in the past annals of our planet better proved than that of 
an age of continental glaciers. Evidence of this is increasingly 
convincing and may be found for the seeking upon nearly every 
square yard of the hillsides and valleys ol New England. 

Mankind are prone to treat with indifference that which is 
common, and the familiar aspect of our lakes and rivers, even of 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 13 

the sea, provoke in us no commensurate idea of the stupendous 
force which water is capable of exerting. 

Two hundred and odd years ago the earliest printed descrip- 
tion of Niagara was given to the world by Father Hennepin. 
His account of this "vast and prodigious cadence of water" is 
a mixture of childish exaggeration and sober truth." But the 
sublimity of this great cataract, which discharges the enormous 
volume of eighteen million cubic feet of water every second, 
needs not the aid of description. About 9.800 cubic miles of 
fresh water — nearly half the quantity on the entire globe — are 
in the upper lakes, and all the water from these huge reservoirs 
makes the circuit of the falls, the St. Lawrence, the ocean, 
vapor, rain, and a return to the lakes in a little more than a 
century and a half. 

But how shrinks this brief cycle of time and how fade the out- 
lines of the scene when in imagination we stand beside the 
gigantic operations of the past. What some of those operations 
were let Mr. Clarence King tell in his own words. In alluding 
to volcanic activities he speaks of "what was once a world-wide 
and immense exhibition of telluric energy * * * distortions 
of the crust, deluges of molten stone, emissions of mineral dust, 
heated waters and noxious gases," and asserts that modern vol- 
canic phenomena are "insignificant when compared with the 
gulf's of molten matter which were thrown up in the great mas- 
sive eruptions" of the past. 

He adds: "Of climatic catastrophes we have the record of 
at least one ;" and in reference to a glacial period he sets forth 
the destructive effects of the invasion of our latitude by polar 
ice, and the devastating power of the floods which were charac- 
teristic of its recession. He contends that the modern rivers 
are mere echoes of their parent streams in the early quarternary 
age and utterly incapable, even with infinite time, to perform 
the work of glacial torrents. Citing the wonderful canons of 
the Cordilleras, he savs "they could never have been carved by 
the pigmy rivers of this climate to the end of time." In view 



14 HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 

of all the ascertainable facts,' Mr. King believes they present 
" perfectly overwhelming evidence that the general deposition 
of aerial water, as compared either with the phenomena of the 
immediately preceding period or with our own succeeding con- 
dition, constituted an age of water-catastrophe whose destructive 
power we only now begin distantly to suspect." 

We have thus briefly cited the few foregoing authorities, in 
order to reinforce and fortify our interpretation of certain local 
phenomena, and to the end that our theories may not wilfully 
be divorced from fact. To the mathematician, the geologist, 
the astronomer — to those who walk without stumbling in the 
wide ways leading to the sun — we leave the task of explanation. 

We call to our support at this point but one other authority, 
and quote from the works of Prof. Hitchcock, whose researches 
in the very field of our inquiry are precisely in point and entitle 
him to a hearing. He says : " The evidence is clear of the pas- 
sage of the ice-sheet over all the higher New England summits." 
The facts illustrating this statement may be found in the geo- 
logical reports for Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and Mas- 
sachusetts ; for example as to Katabdin, the White Mountains, 
the Green Mountains, and for Greylock in the state last named. 
These reports are easily accessible. Prof. Hitchcock describes 
in detail the moraines and the upper and lower till, and of the 
former he says: "The capping of the hill is loose, the frag- 
ments are rough, not far removed from their source, commonly 
lying naturally." He concludes that these materials were held 
in the ice at the time of its melting. He also refers to exten- 
sive "sloping plains of gravel and sand, deposited by streams 
from melting ice acting upon the moraine." He concludes by 
remarking that "the numerous kames, elevated sand plains and 
river terraces came into existence with the copious floods of 
water resulting from the dissolution of the ice. The history of 
the ice-age is incomplete without a discussion of the events 
occurring in this great continental freshet." 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 1 5 

Our own century beholds Earth, as if newly-awakened from 
a dream ; draped in beautiful garments, she has striven to hide 
the scars of her terrific struggle for life. Time has obliterated 
much ; but there still remain records of an age that is past, and 
the clear eye of science — the vision of him who seeks to know 
— may still see the ancient ice-cap moving majestically over the 
spruce and fir-clad hills of our own northland. 

In the tremor of forgotten earthquakes and the outburst of 
crater fires ; in the fall of dew and the music of rain ; in waiting 
flakes of snow or crystals of frost ; in the quiet creep of glaciers 
or the rush of enfranchised waters we recognize the play of the 
old terrestrial forces by which the frame-work of our Earth has 
been evolved. 



CHAPTER III. 



COIVCERNING EARLY FLOODS. 



There is at this day no excuse for descendants of our Derry- 
field ancestors not knowing that a literal river of ice once flowed 
down the now peaceful valley of the Merrimack. Its direction, 
volume and extent are mapped upon their rock-wrinkled home- 
steads. It crawled southward, grinding along at the rate of 
a foot a week — a mile in a century. It at some time halted, 
for how long we may only guess, and then began the terrible 
retreat. The rate of recession is not so well determined, but 
was without doubt comparatively rap ; d, though probably arrested 
at various stages and for undefined periods. To judge from the 
wide-spread havoc to which this near section has been subjected 
there must have been a halt near us. We know — since we 
stand upon the scene of the event — that from the foot of this 
retreating, melting glacier, poured frightful down-rushes of tur- 
bid water, by whose action the landscape acquired its present 
characteristic features, and by which the surface materials of 
this region have been so strangely sifted and assorted. 

The tourist of to-day who shall stand beside the source of the 
Arveiron, " who drinks in the sublime view at the foot of the 
glacier ; he who beholds this marvel, glorious with icy portico, 
facade and pyramid, who hears at night the scornful roar of the 
Alpine flood," may peradventure frame some dim conception of 
energies which seem to know no yesterday nor morrow. But 
greater things than these, which promised to flow forever, have 
passed away. 

Let us come nearer home. Passing westward from the river 
let us climb the isolated ridge of Rock Rimmon — if, indeed, it 
be not also submerged — and from that point observe. To the 
west and trending northerly lies the valiey of the Piscataquog ; 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. ij 

to the east front, ranging north and south, the valley of the 
Merrimack, and between these the lesser valley of Black Brook. 
From the point of time we have chosen — a matter of seventy 
or eighty thousand years ago — these little resemble the peace- 
ful landscapes with which we are now acquainted. 

Three powerful, ice-fed streams, terrible in their energy, are 
forcing their way southward, carving channels as they move ; 
bursting their banks, assaulting rocky barriers, raging, roaring, 
eroding ; with counter and cross-currents, eddies, whirlpools, 
horrible, precipitous narrows, and tremendous rapids, forerun- 
ners of still more tremendous cataracts. Borne along and 
whirled hither and yon in the midst of these frightful torrents 
we see indistinguishable masses of debris and angular blocks of 
frozen clay, with an interminable procession of rifted fragments 
of inland icebergs, accompanied with stones and rocks of differ- 
ing dimensions, from the pebble to the bowlder. Add to this 
the gloom of a cloudy sky, the ceaseless fall of rain, the riot of 
winds, the song of the tempest. Try to picture the indescriba- 
ble, continuous rush and turmoil of the elements, the intermit- 
tent thunder of the pounding ice and bowlders, then turn to the 
shrunken rivers of to-day. 

The figures of the transporting power of water are startling. 
We know the force is as the sixth power of the velocity ; that 
is, by doubling the rate we increase the power sixty four times. 
To give concrete examples : A stream running at the rate of 
three inches per second will wear away fine, tough clay ; with 
a velocity of thirty-six inches per second the current will remove 
angular fragments of rock from two to three inches in diameter. 
The latter rate is quite moderate — a little more than two miles 
an hour — and presents but a picture in little of the rapidity of 
our earlier floods. We have taken no account of the influence 
of gravity operating on descending slopes, and we may also call 
to mind the fact that rocks lose nearly one-third of their weight 
in water. 
2 



l8 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

Let us now inquire in a general way what we find to be the 
environment of our typical New England river. At its sources 
we usually discover great rock masses, detached from the cliffs 
of the mountains. Along the course of the precipitous, tum- 
bling torrent — the trout-water of the sportsman — we find im- 
mense bowlders, more or less carved and water-worn, their angu- 
lar projections rounded, their bulk diminished and lessened as 
they course down the rough miles of attrition. At the foot of 
the descent we shall find aggregations of smaller bowlders, with 
cobble-stones and pepples. He who wades and follows, rod in 
hand, the bed of one of these mountain tributaries may step 
confidently from one stone to another and find firm footing, rare- 
ly meeting one that turns under his tread. The reason is as 
simple as it is significant, for each of these detached rocks has 
been many times rolled over and wrenched from its lodgment 
until it has at length found the groove that fits and holds it. 

Where two mountain streams unite we shall generally find a 
tongue of land, or rather a delta of stone, usually symmetrical 
in form and built of assorted layers of stones and pebbles, seem- 
ingly put together with the discrimination of design. These 
shining, parti-colored beds are the bowlders in miniature. Still 
lower we find the smaller pebbles, gravels of varying fineness, 
then sand, and last of all mud or silt. 

We can never view a bank of earth, laid bare by accident or 
design, exhibiting its curiously stratified layers, without refer- 
ring to this sorting and sifting process, this violent picking and 
choosing of torrents, while we stand in wonder at the delicate 
threads of deposition laid almost tenderly in place by succeeding 
quiet waters. 

We have space merely to mention other tremendous agencies 
which have contributed to the landscape some of its most rugged 
features. We can only now hint at the ruin caused by streams 
dammed by drifting ice, or by the accumulation of more perman- 
ent obstacles, but there should not be left out of account the 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 19 

more terrible effects of land-slides choking the mountain gorges 
until the gathering waters burst the mighty barriers, carrying 
everything before them. That almost inconceivable havoc was 
not infrequently caused by these agencies our torn and ravaged 
plains attest. The White Mountains afford evidence of ancient 
land slides in many places. The Willey slide, though not large, 
became widely known from the loss of life which accompanied 
it. The great slide in Waterville was the most extensive ever 
known in this region. An immense mass of loosened earth and 
rock was precipitated to the valley from the steep western slope 
of Tri-Pyramid mountain, the material covering acres in extent 
and reaching as far as Mad river. The writer has personally 
visited and examined the scene of this great land-slip. Within 
quite recent years a considerable slide occurred on Cherry moun- 
tain, to which excursion trains were run to enable the curious to 
witness the unaccustomed sight. 

But by far the most striking and picturesque slide ever occur- 
ring in New Hampshire took place in the town of Albany, in 
the county of Carroll, only a few years since. The north side 
of Passaconaway mountain was cleft from peak to base, laying 
bare the solid granite bed for the entire distance. The slide is 
narrow at the top, gradually widening as it descends and comes 
clown in a straight line until the foot-hills are encountered. 
Here the mass was sharply deflected to the west and forced in- 
to the valley of Downs's brook. The north slope of Passacona- 
way is uncommonly steep and is densely wooded to the summit. 
But every tree and rock, inclusive of every inch of the soil, was 
carried down, leaving the very core of the mountain as clean as 
if swept with a new broom. The brook-valley was completely 
choked up with earth and stones piled with trees in inextricable 
confusion, rising many feet in height, and for nearly three miles 
the banks of the stream were lined with the blackened trunks 
of great firs and spruces. The water rose incredibly and finally 
forced its way through, but a splendid trout stream was ruined. 



20 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

The event occurred in the night and had no witnesses, but its 
horrible rumble and grinding roar shook the earth and was dis- 
tinctly heard and felt by the inmates of houses more than five 
miles distant. Passaconaway — signifying Child of the Bear — 
rises to a height of more than four thousand feet and is the high- 
est summit of the Sandwich range. The writer has repeatedly 
visited the locality and made himself familiar with the scene by 
climbing for a prudent distance up the slippery bed of this huge 
but unworked quarry. Viewed from the Swift river valley, com- 
monly known as the "Great Interval," at a distance of some 
four miles by an air-line, the picture is magnificent. The great 
rock-floor appears as steep as the sides of a church roof, but the 
feat of climbing it has been successfully accomplished, and what 
is more astonishing and apparently incredible, several persons 
have ascended the summit by way of the " Birch Intervale Trail " 
on the south or Tamworth side, and safely walked down the 
slide to the foot. It is well that they walked ; to run would be 
fatal, for once running there could be no stopping, and an at- 
tempt to put on the brake by lying down would be simply a 
changed mode of motion, as one would get about two miles of 
roll, with an accompaniment of bumps better imagined than de- 
scribed. In the exercise of an instinct quite common to many 
of us, we have quite decided to go down in a sitting posture, with 
a series of short hitches, which may consume time but will con- 
tribute to our peace of mind. A number of ladies have climbed 
Passaconaway, but none have made use of the rock-toboggan. 
This is reserved for the new woman. 

Flowing from the east flank of Tri-Pyramid mountain and en- 
tering the Swift river a mile or more west of the base of Passa- 
conaway is Sabbaday brook. Two miles from its mouth may 
be seen the finest waterfall in the White Mountains. It is a 
right-angled fall, the first plunge being to the north, the second 
to the east. At the foot of the upper fall is a large, bowl-shaped 
basin, some twelve feet in diameter. At the foot of the lower 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 21 

fall is another basin, and leading from it is a deep flume cut in 
solid trap rock. In the white, rushing foam of this flume, in the 
summer of 1873, the writer caught his first genuine "rainbow 
trout." The surroundings of this waterfall add a gloomy gran- 
deur to the scene. The deep gorge is enclosed by vertical walls 
of trap rock, the ascent to the top being up a natural stone stair- 
way, the steps as sharply defined as if cut with a chisel. Some 
miles further up, the stream has been overwhelmed by extensive 
land-slides and for a mile or more is entirely buried. The two 
brooks referred to are mountain streams of the first order, with 
wide valleys and free water-courses, averaging from two to three 
rods in width, and flowing, the first for a distance of six and the 
second for more than ten miles of winding water. 

The above, with many other features of great interest in this 
New Hampshire " garden of the gods" are little known, owing 
to remoteness of situation and difficulty of access, the distance 
from the nearest railway at Conway Corner being fifteen miles — 
the entrance between the frowning walls of Moat mountain and 
the peak of Chocorua. There is but one road by which to enter 
or return, and if one seeks a shorter way he must climb over 
the enclosing mountains. But woe to him who loses the trail, 
for there are thousands of acres of timber blown flat by hurri- 
canes, the passage of which is next to impossible. 

The foregoing, although removed from the immediate sur- 
roundings of our story, is given in cumulative support of what 
has gone before, and as furnishing striking instances of the pow- 
erful forces still reserved by nature. 

We shall not fail to find along the Merrimack valley at every 
mile of its course just what we might expect to find, in the light 
of the previous considerations. To localize the inquiry, we may 
now see both above and below Amoskeag falls, notably on the 
west bank, vast mounds of water-worn and water-borne deposits, 
consisting of sand, gravel and cobble-stones, the latter ranging 
from a few inches to a foot or more in diameter, and as various 



22 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

in composition as in size. These accumulations lie many feet 
above any high water mark of which record or memory remains. 
To be reckoned in millions of tons, they lie where they were left 
of old in the rocky peninsulas between the floods. We may find 
them at greater or less elevations, alternating with deposits of 
sand, earth or clay, now presenting beautiful banks with differ- 
ing colored strata, or again in a rude aggregation of unassorted 
drift. Wherever found, and whether near or remote from exist- 
ing water-courses, from which many of them are far removed, 
these terrace-like elevations tell us of the waters that brought 
them there. 

A mile south of Rock Rimmon, passing over an elevated sand- 
plain, one comes suddenly to the brink of high bluffs, which as 
surely once looked upon a lake below them as Boar's Head looks 
upon the sea. The height, the waving contour-line following 
the shores of bays and inlets, the sunken river beds beyond and 
the shoals stretching between, all testify to the occupation and 
conquest of water in that sub-glacial era, of which so little is 
known, but concerning which so much still remains in records 
awaiting research and interpretation. 

We know in a half-thinking way that a great city occupying 
the site of ancient Derryfield is built upon sand. How came it 
here ? To this there can be but one answer : It was made in 
the first instance and fetched here by water, however much it 
may have since been tossed about by the wind or shovelled about 
by man. In a similar mood we carelessly tread beneath our feet 
in the concrete foundations of our public walks the stones worn 
smooth in the beds of the elder floods. Our forests grow, our 
harvests thrive upon soil leached and filched from the moun- 
tains, while the very walls that give us shelter are built of clay 
ground in the glacial mills and precipitated in the still waters 
of glacial lakes. 

With the approach of summer the thoroughfares to the White 
Hills will be thronged with pilgrims, In the ceaseless but un- 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 23 

recognized work carried on in the laboratories of nature, asking 
only time and patience, how many inconceivable changes have 
been already wrought. Time and patience — given these what 
wonders have been achieved in the brief span of human effort ; 
with these, nature will continue to supplement her tireless work 
until the hills that remain shall follow those which have gone 
before. Slowly but surely water is performing its allotted work 
— the rivers are removing mountains. 

Let no false conclusions be drawn from the record, and no 
theory of unmixed evil be too hastily reached. Nature knows 
no wrath. Earth, rent and torn in its early struggle with titanic 
forces, succeeded to a period of rest and preparation. The 
ordeal through which she passed was not beyond the measure 
of her endurance, the baptism of water and fire was a consecra- 
tion to a nobler use. Nothing is sweeter than the memory of 
hardship and privations passed ; our planet shivered in a wintry 
night, with rattle of driving sleet, a season of frowning skies, 
a burden of icy sheets and snow-piled plains ; but in the infinite 
reaches of time, healed and pacified, there came a spring of 
grace and glory, a summer of fruitful seed, a harvest of plenty. 
So, from the womb of appalling danger, has been begotten the 
last inheritance — life. 

In the menacing roar of the thunderous fall, in the rainbow 
of its mist, and in the sea that swallows all, we seem to behold 
a glorious trinity of Power, Law and Order ; we bow reverently 
before the majesty of that Creative Will which walked in dark- 
ness upon the face of the primeval deep, which brooded upon 
the face of the waters. 



[A succeeding paper is in preparation, which will deal with 
added evidences and consider other effects of the epoch under 
discussion in the foregoing pages. It will form part second of 
the series and will be paged continuously from the present num- 
ber. Among the topics reserved for discussion are "The Sand 
Area," the " Great Clay Beds," " Pot Holes and Rock Wear," 
the "Devil's Pulpit," etc.] 



<?oi)trib(jtioQS 



TD THE 



J-listoryof Old Derryfield, 



BY WILLIAM ELLERY MOORE. 



PART SECOND. 
PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



TO THE 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD, 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

SOME SPECIAL LOCAL FEATURES 



AS PRODUCED BY TORRENTS FROM MELTING ICE-FIELDS, TOGETHER 

WITH A FURTHER ACCOUNT OF EARLY FLOODS AND OTHER 

ALLIED EVIDENCES OF A GLACIAL EPOCH. 



BY WILLIAM E. MOORE. 



▲ PAPER READ BEFORE THE 



MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 



PART II. 



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR. 



PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. 



Entered according to Act of Congress 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, 

District of Columbia. 

1897. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD 



BY WILLIAM E. MOORE. 



CHAPTER IV. 

ROCKS IN PLACE — BOWLDERS — THE SAND AREA — THE GREAT CLAY BEDS 

— VEGETABLE SURVIVALS — RHODODENDRON SWAMP — POT HOLES 

AND ROCK WEAR, ETC. 

Evidences of a former period of volcanic activity in this imme- 
diate section are not wholly wanting, but it may be said roundly 
that there is no such evidence manifesting itself to the untrain- 
ed eye. We have no volcanic cones, no active or even extinct 
craters, and no lava beds. Aside from the presence of altered 
or metamorphic rock, and occasional trap dikes, we are aware of 
no plutonic material in the region we have described. 

The rocks in place within a radius of ten miles, an area extend- 
ing from the mountains on the west to beyond the water-shed 
line upon the east — consist generally of mica-schist, gneiss and 
granite, with the usual variety of quartzites. The principal 
beds in Derry field proper are composed of gneiss, or bastard 
granite, and fine specimens of this archaean rock may be seen in 
the pillasters of the city hall. Quarries of pure granite are rare 
in this vicinity, although new ones are being from time to time 
opened and developed. 

We are not without a large representation of travelled blocks, 
and numerous enormous bowlders, which have been transported 



28 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

from a distance may be seen in the neighborhood. One block, 
reckoned at not less sixty tons in weight, lies near Ray brook. 
Ten miles away, in the old settlement of Charmingfare, is one 
nearly double the former in size. Hundreds of others in assort- 
ed bulk are perched here and there in every direction and at 
all elevations. On Shirley hill, upon the very apex of the crest, 
are three heavy bowlders lying close together, evidently parts 
of one parent piece, and known far and wide as the "Tipping 
Rocks." Two of these, weighing many tons each, may be put 
in motion by the hand of a child ; the third could formerly be 
rocked back and forth with a slight pressure, but the experi- 
ments of thousands of visitors, and the efforts of vandals with 
lever and fulcrum, moved it at last once too much, and it now 
waits in place some power greater than the hand of man. Sev- 
eral of the larger rock masses are in the vicinity of the falls and 
some remarkable fragments lie upon the bank of the river, near 
the great eddy below Amoskeag. 

Mere coincidence cannot reasonably be assigned for the very 
frequent recurrence of the great bowlders in doubles or triplets, 
split apart, and the text-books do not appear to treat of the way 
in which this has been done, most writers making no allusion to 
it whatever. This phenomena, however, is so common and char- 
acteristic of transported rock-masses, carried for long distances 
through the agency of ice, that we are impelled to attempt some 
explanation. It must be conceded that rocks held fast in a mov- 
ing ice-sheet, or borne upon its surface, must during their jour- 
ney be subjected to great vicissitudes. A mass beginning with a 
position on top might end with a place at the bottom, or even 
be stranded along a lateral moraine. These incidents of its 
progress would be sufficient to account for the loss of angular 
projections as well as for the wearing, since they would be more 
or less rounded by coming in contact with other stones. But 
these conditions would hardly explain the separation of heavy 
bowlders into two or more fragments. Our solution is that dur- 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 29 

ing the dissolution of the ice-cap these masses were released and 
fell headlong, sometimes for great distances, striking the earth 
with a force sufficient in many instances to shatter them in 
pieces. This theory would not only answer the question raised 
but would also account for the varying intervals between the 
parts of the parent mass. In our field studies we have frequent- 
ly met with such a rifted fragment and queried as to the where- 
about of its companions. We need hardly add that the eviden- 
ces of rock-weathering and the accumulation of moss or lichen, 
even upon the riven surfaces of the bowlders alluded to, show 
the fractures to be of great age, and that they must necessarily 
be referred to the time of impact at the point of deposition. It 
is quite easy to make allowance for the character of the surface 
upon which the rock chanced to strike ; the problem of the dis- 
tance through which it fell we gladly leave to the physicist. 



Garnet-bearing gneiss is quite common hereabout, some of 
the ledges near Rock Rimmon containing good specimens, but 
probably of no commercial importance. No valuable minerals 
have ever been found here, so far as we are aware, although 
beautiful crystals of quartz, felspar, hornblende and tourmaline 
are encountered, and small quantities of graphite are found in 
local ledges. Small but finely-polished porphyritic pebbles are 
found near by in the bed of the Merrimack, brought down from 
the neighborhood of Moosilauke mountain by way of Baker river 
and the Pemigewasset, others reaching us by way of the Winne- 
pesauke. Larger fragments of porphyritic rock are found at 
various levels, even upon the water-shed ridges, which points to 
the wide dispersion of this peculiar rock, as we understand it is 
not found in place nearer than the region of Winnepesauke lake. 
The text-books will sufficiently describe the character and trace 
to their habitat other transported minerals, some of which came 
to us from the Laurentian hills or even the remote wilds of 
Labrador, 



30 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

THE SAND AREA. 

Roundly speaking, Derryfield was built upon the sand. Every 
chink, crack or crevice, every depression is filled with it; plenum 
is the word. The depth of this vast deposit varies from twelve 
to twenty or more feet, and the great sloping sand-plains lie on 
either flank of the river valley. Before the Massabesic water- 
supply was introduced the people had mainly to rely upon wells, 
although there were a considerable number of fine springs, some 
of which are in use at the present day. A copious spring on 
Hanover square has been walled in and the water conducted in 
pipes to various points in the heart of the city, so that our citi- 
zens have the luxury of cool spring-water throughout the warmer 
months. An iron fountain in front of the city hall is fed from 
this supply, where thousands of our thirsty operatives daily slack 
their thirst. Most of the old wells are now disused or filled up, 
but in nearly every instance the digging of each well told the 
same story : First, an excavation though clear sand, both wind- 
blown and stratified, then smooth and rounded cobble-stones, 
beneath them coarse, water-bearing gravel, usually over-lying 
clay or hard-pan. The water-worn stones rest upon the gravel 
beneath the overlying deposits, precisely as they rested upon 
the beds of open and flowing streams, in that far-off epoch before 
the sand-burdened floods buried them. 

THE GREAT CLAY BEDS. 

As we have before hinted, there are along the course of the 
Merrimack, to the northward and mainly upon the east bank, a 
series of beds of very superior brick-clay, so extensive as to be 
practically inexhaustible. As elsewhere, these deposits are over- 
laid with a mantle of recent till, gravel, sand and loam. No one 
familiar with the structure of clay can conceive of its being de- 
posited in rapid water. These clays were laid down in the still 
waters of ancient lakes, having been ground between the upper 
and nether mill-stones of the glaciers and transported to the 






HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 31 

basins they afterwards occupied. It is true that they no longer 
occupy anything that resembles a basin, but lie high above the 
present water-level. But before the bed of the Merrimack be- 
came continuous and finally sank to the level of our time, the 
rock-barriers at Garvin's, Hooksett, Amoskeag and Goffe's falls 
must have given way, at least sufficiently to drain the lake. The 
first business of the released water would be to carve a channel 
through materials of the least resistance, and prodigious quanti- 
ties of clay went out, possibly to form new deposits elsewhere, 
leaving the remainder of the beds where they are found to-day. 

It is not easy to conceive of the origin of such vast accumula- 
tions. We know that the chief ingredient of the finer clays is 
decomposed felspar — pure kaolin — and we are at no loss to 
locate this mineral in the almost universal presence of felspathic 
rocks in this region, notably granite and gneiss. These rocks, 
then, supplied the materials, and the very fact that it was yield- 
ed in such enormous quantities is an independent witness to the 
magnitude of those sub-glacial phenomena to which so many of 
the common facts of to-day are to be referred. The former 
presence of felspar in excessive quantities in this locality is evi- 
denced by the composition of the rocks in certain abandoned 
quarries, notably along the Hooksett road, where may now be 
found remarkably fine crystals of felspar of unusual size. 

As to the precise method by which the clays as we know them 
were in the first instance formed there is scant evidence, and 
the subject asks for further treatment at the hands of geological 
experts. Authorities assert, however, that the stones in the 
ever moving and shifting ice were ground together and that the 
fine dust thus liberated was transported by water to suitable 
points of deposit, resulting in beds of clay or earth. 

It may further be borne in mind that during and immediately 
following the final melting of the ice-cap much of the accumu- 
lated earth, clay, gravel and stones were left in unstratified de- 
posits, in immense quantities and often of great height, and that 



32 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

these were attacked, re-transported and the materials re-arranged 
through the agency of water, still flowing in great volume from 
the receding ice to the northward. So that when we contem- 
plate the fact that the bowlder clay and in fact the great bulk 
of all unstratified drift was used over and over again, the prob- 
lem of the origin of the great modern clay beds does not seem 
obscure. 

Prof. Dana says the melting of the great ice-sheet was the 
cause of mighty floods in the valleys, so vast as not to be com- 
pared with those resulting from the breaking up of the ordinary 
winter. He adds that with the melting of the lower one thous- 
and feet of ice came the principal deposition of the coarser gravel 
and stones, the material being " heaped pell-mell over the land." 
This happy phrase accurately describes the condition which we 
find prevailing to-day in the fields, pastures and plains about us. 
A map of our farm-lands, drawn upon a scale to give the stone 
wall division lines, would show an almost inconceivable bulk of 
this material in single and double walls, while thousands of fields 
dotted with the familiar rock-heaps, and numberless ravines, by- 
places and road-side ways serving as unloading places for name- 
less millions of tons of this " pell-mell" material, yet represent 
but a very small fraction of the original deposit. These modest 
monuments of New England thrift and industry give us but a 
faint conception of the operation of the beneficent forces of na- 
ture, which, while they seemed destructive, were making Earth 
a fit abiding-place for man. We should add that most of the 
material was at first left unstratified, while that which found its 
way to lake basins or to shoals and bars in flowing streams would 
have become stratified, and that is precisely what is found in 
the region under consideration. 

Dana also remarks the coarsely stony character of the upper 
part of the terrace formation, and concludes that the glacial 
flood was greatly and suddenly augmented in depth and violence 
toward the close of the melting period. 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 33 

In Wright's " Ice Age in North America " the author says : 
" In the deltas of rivers the sifting power of water may be ob- 
served. Where a mountain stream first debouches upon a plain 
the force of its current is such as to move large pebbles, or bowl- 
ders even two or three feet in diameter. As the current is 
checked the particles moved by it become smaller and smaller 
until only the finest sediment is transported * * * and this 
is deposited as a thin film over the previous coarse deposit. 
Upon the repetition of the flood another layer of coarser mate- 
rial is spread over the surface, and so, in successive stages, is 
built up a series of stratified deposits. Water moving with vari- 
ous degrees of velocity is the most perfect sieve imaginable." 

The author reaches many conclusions, specially applicable to 
the restricted field of our inquiry, which we have only space to 
epitomize : When a glacier dissolves, the torrents of water aris- 
ing tear down and distribute as sediment to distant valleys the 
material accumulated by the slow movement of centuries ; that 
the transportation by water from the front of glaciers is certain- 
ly of immense extent ; that the glacial debris still remaining is 
but an insignificant remnant of the total amount transported, 
and that sub-glacial streams must have sent their turbid currents 
clown through every New England outlet. 

Prof. Shaler estimates the total amount of drift in New Eng- 
land and its neighboring terminal moraines at 750 cubic miles, 
or more than the mass of the White Mountains. If evenly dis- 
tributed this would make a layer of about sixty-five feet. 

Prof. Wright says that New England is gridironed by a system 
of gravel-ridges deposited by glacial streams, and that in these 
and in the terminal moraines we may study the skeleton of the 
continental ice-sheet as intelligently as the anatomist can study 
the skeleton of a dissected animal. 

The same authority says : "The scenes to have been wit- 
nessed during the advance of the ice-sheet are as nothing com- 
pared with those which must have occurred during its retreat." 
11 During the last stages of the great ice-age, through the months 



34 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

of July, August and September, warm southerly winds and a 
glowing sun were combining to dissolve, with utmost rapidity, 
the vast masses of ice which still lingered in the country. The 
channels were then compelled to carry off not only the annual 
precipitation, but the stored-up precipitation which had been 
accumulating as glacial ice for thousands of years." "These 
floods along the lines of glacial drainage have left their marks, 
and their direction and extent can be traced almost as readily as 
in the case of the present streams." 

The careful observer upon our own ground, within thirty min- 
utes walk of the mayor's office, will find sand and gravel terraces 
one or two hundred feet above the present flood-plain ; and these 
terraces approximate if they do not accurately mark the highest 
stage of the closing floods of the ice-age. 

VEGETABLE SURVIVALS. 

Scattered at not rare intervals throughout this section a few 
sassafras trees may be found, but they are more frequently met 
with upon the shore and islands of Massabesic lake. Two spec- 
imens of the slippery elm are growing in the fine grove known 
as Arcadia, northwest of Rock Rimmon and upon the east ter- 
race of the Piscataquog. These are the only specimens of this 
tree, growing wild, with which we are acquainted in this vicinity. 
Cedars are not uncommon, and are frequently seen, being more 
plentiful toward the sea-coast. 

These with other curious survivals of a former tropical climate 
in this latitude, probably closely following the age of ice, are of 
great significance, and we offer them in cumulative support of 
the existence of such a period ; and the recorded and published 
facts concerning the discovery of the remains of tropical animals 
and plants as far north as southern Greenland, removes our mod- 
est assumptions from the charge of improbability. On the oth- 
er hand we have purposely refrained from giving here a cata- 
logue of survivals of an arctic flora and fauna, which undoubt- 
edly accompanied the age of arctic ice-fields. 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 35 

RHODODENDRON SWAMP. 

About two miles northwest of Amoskeag falls, lying to the 
east of and near the valley of Black brook, is a great thicket, 
covering from sixty to eighty acres, and known as Rhododendron 
or Cedar swamp. A portion of this territory is covered with a 
thick growth of cedars, and large areas are overgrown with rho- 
dodendron. So dense is the cover that its depths are penetrated 
with difficulty, but it is visited by scores of people whose time 
and toil are rewarded in securing specimens of this rare and 
fragrant flower. 

POT-HOLES AND ROCK WEAR. 

The vicinity of Amoskeag falls, below the present dam, pre- 
sents fine examples of the well-known but little understood pot- 
holes, found there in great number. These are of all sizes and 
depths, from those of a few inches in diameter or groove to those 
of several feet in width, and of varying depth. The largest 
example is located high upon the sloping shoulder of a great 
boss of granite, lying south of the highway bridge, between the 
two main streams leading from the dam, and overhanging the 
current. Here mav be seen a large excavation running down 
entirely through the east shoulder of the rock, the rapid water 
having worn away the ledge beneath, allowing the stone tool or 
tools which performed the work to drop through into the stream 
below. This curious hole is nearly circular in form, more than 
six feet in diameter, and not less than fourteen feet in depth. 
Since this remarkable excavation was made a large angular frag- 
ment of rock has fallen into it and lodged about half-way down, 
where it is now securely wedged in place. This pot-hole — if, 
indeed, it be such — offers a notable exception to the remaining 
members of the group and is a geological puzzle. The top of 
the rock in which it occurs is high above ordinary flood-mark 
and has not been completely covered by the waters of any fresh- 
et of modern times, with possibly two or three exceptions, and 



36 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

then for only a few hours at a time. So that this particular ex- 
cavation must be singled out with confidence as having been 
formed by a pre-historic stream, flowing at a level very much 
above the known water-lines of to-day, and in a time so remote 
as to be conjectural, if not at once referred to a glacial epoch 
ante-dating that under discussion. 

There are some remarkably significant facts connected with 
the group of pot-holes we are considering. In the first place the 
larger part of them occur in the bottom or bed-rock ; again, they 
were found just as they now appear when the first dam was 
built upon the stream above them. They remain precisely in 
the form of their first discovery by the early salmon-fishers, not 
less than two centuries and a half ago. Old residents at the falls 
unite in the statement that so far as their observation or knowl- 
edge extends there has been no change in their number and 
character. It is altogether probable that under the required 
conditions pot-holes are somewhere even now being made, but 
there is not the slightest evidence here of the formation of new 
ones within the historic period. 

Beautiful and symmetrical examples of pot-holes are likewise 
found at Hooksett and Goffe's falls on the Merrimack, at Kelly's 
falls on the Piscataquog, and at a point on the latter stream near 
Arcadia, where there was formerly a dam. 

We have examined a pamphlet by Bouve, entitled " Indian 
Pot-Holes, " in which the writer sets up an ingenious theory as 
to the manner of their formation. He conceives that some may 
have been formed by plunging falls, descending from a sufficient 
height, proceeding from ice-fissures, and continued long enough 
to produce the effects. He concedes the difficulty of requiring 
the ice-sheet to remain stationary, but offers nevertheless no 
other explanation. It is certain that continued plunging falls 
will excavate remarkable basins in rock-floors upon which they 
impinge ; these are frequently very symmetrical, and the rock- 
wear has undoubtedly been in part produced by stones carried 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 37 

round in the cavity, thus reinforcing the labor of the water. But 
true pot-holes are so unlike any other rock excavations that they 
can never be confounded. Their cylindrical form and vertical 
direction, as well as their peculiar situation, preclude any but a 
modified acceptance of the theory of Bouve. 

One pot-hole or "giants' kettle," described by Bouve as in the 
"form of a cylinder," is sixteen feet deep by five broad. An- 
other has a depth of about forty feet and a diameter of eight to 
twelve. Much more remarkable than either is his account of 
two others, found near Archbald, Pennsylvania, which we quote : 
"The Archbald pot-holes are one thousand feet apart and were 
both discovered in coal-mining, their bottoms being in the coal 
bed. When the drift filling them was cleared out, one was found 
to be thirty-eight feet deep, with a diameter of about fifteen feet 
at the bottom, increasing to a maximum of forty-two feet and a 
minimum of twenty-four feet across its top ; and the second, the 
diameter of which is not definitely noted, was about fifty feet 
deep in rock, with a covering of about fifteen feet of drift." 

In his remarkable work previously quoted, Prof. Wright gives 
this : " On the water-parting between the Merrimack and the 
Connecticut, there is to be found the dry bed of a river which 
for a time flowed through a pass from the Connecticut valley 
into the Merrimack, which is now five hundred feet above the 
valleys. Here, upon this mountain axis in central New Hamp- 
shire, nine hundred feet above the sea, are numerous and large 
water-worn circular cavities in the rock, technically known as 
pot-holes, such as are formed in shallow rapids, wherever gravel 
and pebbles become lodged, first, in some natural slight depress- 
ion, and then, through the whirling motion given them by the 
running water, these continue to wear a symmetrical depression 
so long as the supply of water continues, or until a channel has 
been cut through. Pot-holes may be seen in the rapids of almost 
any rocky stream, with the gravel and pebbles, which do the im- 
mediate work when set in motion, still partially filling them. 



38 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

Such pot-holes exist in the anomalous position mentioned in 
New Hampshire, where no present stream could by any possi- 
bility be made to flow. One of them, measured many years ago 
by Jackson, was eleven feet deep, four and a half feet in diame- 
ter at the top, and two feet at the bottom, and when discovered 
was filled with earth and rounded stones." 

The instance referred to above is in Grafton county, between 
Grafton Centre and East Canaan. 

The whole account is no less wonderful than admirable, con- 
forming wholly with what we have independently observed, with 
the single exception of the reference to "shallow rapids." We 
have become convinced that pot-holes are rarely if ever formed 
except at the bottom of deep eddies and whirlpools, where there 
is set up a continuous and nearly equable circular movement of 
the water. Their formation in rapid and at once shallow cur- 
rents could not occur, for the reason that the force of the stream 
would continually wash down and away the stone tools which 
might elsewise undertake the work. Besides, were Professor 
Wright's assumption true, we should see the making of the char- 
acteristic pot-hole going on under our very eyes. But this is 
precisely what we do not see, and we are unable to assign such 
examples as have come to our knowledge to any but a remote 
era and to operations taking place at a very considerable if not 
great depth of water. It is true that they may be still found in 
shallow rapids, and even partially filled with pepples, but the 
perhaps unintentional inference that they were now in process 
of making does not appear to be warranted by observed facts. 

We venture to sefdown four important factors in the forma- 
tion of the true pot-hole, to wit : I. Sufficient depth of water. 

2. A whirling and nearly equable movment of the current. 

3. Sufficient length of time. 4. Varying hardness of the rock 
attacked, and hardness of the excavating tool. Under these 
varying conditions the differing features of pot-holes, wherever 
found and whether single or in groups, may be accounted for. 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 39 

With reference to more common examples of rock-wear, these 
may be found at the various falls in this section to which allu- 
sion has been made, and no finer instances of the action of run- 
ning water are afforded this side of the upper Ammonusuc. At 
Amoskeag this is exhibited upon a grand scale, and in a spring 
freshet the rapids below the falls are not matched in grandeur 
elsewhere in New Hampshire. Here the evidence is overwhelm- 
ing as to the former existence of a rocky barrier, holding back 
the water in a great lake basin, extending as far north as Hook- 
sett. Beyond that point there is equally conclusive evidence of 
the existence of two or more great lakes stretching northward, 
with rock-dams at Garvin's and Sewall's falls, and another and 
final barrier at Franklin, where the Pemigewasset and Winne- 
pesauke unite. Further reference to examples of rock-wear per- 
formed by pre-historic streams, and the part played by glacial 
dams in the stupendous terrestrial drama, may be found in the 
succeeding chapter. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE DEVIL'S PULPIT — GLACIAL DAMS, ETC. 

After what has been brought before us in preceding pages 
our readers will not be surprised at the introduction of another 
witness to the series of events occurring in past ages, of which 
no written evidence is obtainable and concerning which tradi- 
tion is and must be forever silent. With the admission of the 
claim for the presence of quaternary or even tertiary man, we 
acquire no new source of information, and may look for no addi- 
tion aid from any assumed living contemporaries. The science 
of anthropology has kept pace with other kindred lines of inves- 
tigation, and a consensus of conclusions in this department of 
inquiry leads us to hope for no enlightenment from a race of 
savage men, scarcely less brutal in their instincts than the wild 
beasts with which they contended. As herecofore, our reliance 
must be wholly upon evidence put upon record by the operations 
of natural forces — records which have fortunately been so endur- 
ing as to survive the ravages of time in the vast lapse which 
has succeeded. 

We turn, then, with undisguised satisfaction, to the testimony 
given by a most remarkable and almost unique example of rock- 
wear performed by a pre-historic stream, located in our own im- 
mediate neighborhood, in the adjoining town of Bedford, and 
commonly known as the " Devil's Pulpit." With the exception 
of a brief and inaccurate allusion in Savage's " History of Bed- 
ford," we are not aware that any account has ever been published 
or any accurate description attempted. How little importance 
was attached to this phenomena, and how absolutely void of sig- 
nificance it was regarded no longer ago than 185 1, is shown by 
Savage's reference, which we append. 

The historian says : "There are some objects of curiosity 
worthy of note. On the west line of Bedford, near Chestnut 



History of derryfield. 4* 

hills, is a vast fissure or opening in a mighty mass of rock, ap- 
parently made by some convulsion of nature ; over the precipice 
thus formed is a fall of water some 200 feet into the gulf below. 
Here are found several excavations in the solid rock, sufficiently 
large to contain several persons, and one of them, bearing some 
resemblance to a pulpit, has given name to the place; at the 
bottom there is always a small pool of water, where, in the hot- 
test day, the warmth of the sun scarcely penetrates. As one 
stands on the verge of this tremendous precipice, emotions of 
sublimity will be awakened ; and any lover of nature, who should 
find leisure on a pleasant day, would find himself well paid by 
a visit to this wild and romantic spot." 

About nine miles from Manchester, as the bird flies, or near- 
ly twelve by the highway, the "convulsion of nature" referred 
to is found upon the farm of Mr. Clinton French. Our first 
visit to this locality was more than twenty years ago, when it 
may be said to have been in a state of nature. Since that time 
an increasing number of visitors suggested to the owner the 
idea of making it more accessible to the general public, and with 
this in view he caused to be constructed a good carriage road 
leading from the highway to the Pulpit. Convenient paths were 
made, plank walks laid where necessary, and a substantial stair- 
way built, so that the leading points of interest can be easily 
reached. A turnpike gate guards the entrance and a small toll- 
fee is exacted, sufficient to reimburse the owner for his care and 
outlay. 

The road descends to the level of a wet run, which it crosses, 
and the Pulpit is located in an old pasture a short half-mile from 
the highway. The swampy run is the source of a small brook, 
entering upon the extreme left, and a still smaller stream, which 
is frequently dry during the summer months, enters upon the 
extreme right of the Pulpit. The direction of this curiosity is 
west by south from the city hall, lying to the south and some 
distance west of the Uncanoonucks and east and south-east of 
4 



42 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

Joe English. Between these mountains and their contiguous 
highlands is a deep, well-defined valley or basin, generally trend- 
ing north and south, and for much of its course more than two 
miles broad. Standing upon the height of land near the French 
homestead this great valley extends in either direction as far as 
the eye can reach, the stretch to the southward forming such a 
remarkable depression as to at once suggest the idea of an old 
lake basin, and the contour of the country is such as to entirely 
favor that assumption. From the near highlands is an uninter- 
rupted view of the valley for certainly not less than twelve miles, 
and the scene from the point of view looking towards the sharp 
southern escarpment of Joe English is one of surpassing loveli- 
ness, aside from a consideration of its more striking and sug- 
gestive features. Another fine view of the extension of this val- 
ley northward may be had at Dunbarton village, looking west. 

In following the half-mile carriage way to the bottom of a lat- 
eral valley, at nearly a right-angle with the larger basin, one 
comes suddenly and without any manner of warning upon the 
brink of an abrupt and forbidding chasm in the ledge. This is 
the opening to the famous Devil's Pulpit. It is neither more 
nor less than a water-worn gorge in solid granite, extending in 
a west by south course for about a half mile in nearly a straight 
line. In width the gorge varies but little and will average from 
one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet. At the head of the 
chasm is a fifty foot wall of rock, the cliffs upon either side main- 
taining this altitude for from forty to sixty rods, gradually low- 
ering until the level of the valley plain is reached. The whole 
of this imposing rock -fissure has been eroded by the action of 
water, as the evidence conclusively shows the former existence 
here of a long-continued and powerful stream. The main fall 
plunged over the precipice, causing a whirlpool below sufficient- 
ly violent to excavate the bed-rock in a great circular cavity, worn 
apace with the depth eroded, so that instead of there being found 
the usual bowl-shaped pool or basin the floor was level with the 
bottom of the cliff. The height of successive stages of water is 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 43 

distinctly marked by great semi-circular grooves worn into the 
face of the wall ; of these not less than five are shown, each from 
fifteen to twenty inches vertical diameter, and from three to five 
feet apart. The section directly above the base, to a height of 
more than twelve feet, is eaten in back of the vertical line for a 
considerable distance, and high upon the front of the cliffs the 
granite plainly shows the wear of the great churning movement 
of the whirlpool. 

At the immediate left of the main plunge the action of the 
water is even more remarkable. Here has been sculptured out 
a huge stone chamber many feet in diameter; hanging midway 
is an enormous hulk of rock detached from the cliff; the cavity 
beneath this has been likewise eaten away, and an extending 
flange of rock between the lower chamber and the main fall is 
smoothly worn and polished, standing up edgewise like a stone 
knife-blade. The hanging rock above described is the •' Devil's 
Pulpit," and its gloomy and mysterious origin must have seemed 
a sufficient excuse for the name bestowed by some superstitious 
godfather. The vertical height of the wall at the centre of the 
cataract is a little less than fifty feet, but the out-crop of the 
ledges above on either side is some feet higher ; the width im- 
mediately over the fall is thirty-six and at the base from thirty- 
one to thirty-seven feet, with a forward elongation of fifty-three. 
The whole mass of rock eroded and removed at this point will 
be seen to have been enormous. With the exception of the 
supply from melting snows or occasional heavy rainfalls no water 
now flows over the cliff and for the greater part of the year there 
is but an insignificant drizzle. 

At the left of the Pulpit there is a high, protruding mass of 
rock, forming the south wall of the upper gorge, and at the foot 
of the projection lie heavy masses of rock, thrown down from 
the cliff above, the water having worn away the supporting ledge 
beneath. These fallen rocks now have trees of considerable size 
growing upon them. At various other points along the caflon 
there are other great heaps of fallen rock ; some of these lie, 



44 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

curiously enough, midway of the glen, showing conclusively, if 
other evidence were needed, that the whole area between the 
enclosing walls was carved out of a solid rock-bed by the action 
of water. The upper gorge is sixty feet wide by ninety-four in 
length. 

The foregoing, however, is but the beginning of a series of 
wonders. Seventy-eight feet from the upper fall is " No-Bottom 
Pool." Unlike some other so-called bottomless pits, this is well 
named. We made an attempt to probe it in the autumn of 1896, 
reaching a depth of seventeen feet without difficulty with an iron 
probing-rod of that length, but the bottom seemed as far off as 
ever. Mr. French informed us that, in company with others, 
he some years ago penetrated the pool, with birch poles spliced 
together, to a depth of forty feet, without finding bottom. This 
pool is fifteen feet in diameter, is nearly choked up with debris, 
among which are several logs firmly wedged horizontally, and is 
filled to the brim with water. If this excavation is a pot hole it 
is certainly the most remarkable example in New England and 
fairly parallels the largest known anywhere. It is, however, 
possible that the bed-rock at this point has been worn through, 
affording an entrance into what geologists describe as a fault. 
The question can only be determined by a thorough examina- 
tion by a properly equipped scientific expedition. So far as ob- 
served it appears to have all the characteristics of true pot-holes. 
It is circular, vertical, and at the top fifteen feet in diameter. 

The same authority informed us of his discovery of another 
excavation near the foot of the stairway, in which no bottom was 
reached at a depth of twenty feet. Its existence would not now 
be suspected, as it is entirely filled up and covered with earth 
and stones ; and it is altogether likely there are others which 
have similarly escaped observation. These instances are suffi- 
ciently wonderful to invite scientific exploration. 

A few rods below, occupying a lower level, is a second gorge, 
with a twenty-six foot wall, and a basin below thirty feet in diam- 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 45 

eter. The supporting side-walls are from fifteen to thirty-two 
feet vertical height. Still lower along the canon, and at varying 
intervals, are other pools and basins, some of them many feet in 
depth, and in diameter much larger than those described. At 
all of these points, and high upon the front of the lateral walls 
upon either side, is exhibited the same evidence of water-erosion, 
as distinctly mapped upon the granite leaves as if drawn upon 
sheets of modern card-board. 

At the extreme left of the upper fall, separated from it by 
high, protruding masses of rock, and flowing at a little lower 
level, is the run-brook before referred to, which courses through 
the entire length of the gorge, entering the sunken valley below. 
This brook has at first a winding and steep descent, and goes 
trickling along the bed of the canon, broken in its course by a 
series of beautiful cascades and miniature waterfalls, with many 
fine pools and basins, some of them quite large and symmetri- 
cal, with carved rock channels intervening. The brook itself, 
however, as we know it to-day, is utterly incompetent to produce 
even these minor but attractive features, the volume of water 
being insufficient to account for them. The stream ran down 
for a considerable distance independently, until it coalesqued 
with the main current from the upper right hand fall. 

But this brook affords another and striking feature to which 
we are impelled to direct attention. Just above the point of its 
entrance, upon a level ledge, ten or twelve feet higher than any 
conceivable stage of water within modern times, is a well-defined 
and undoubted pot-hole, whose age must certainly be referred 
to the same period as that of the gorge itself. As will appear 
hereafter, it is important to remember that after a course of sev- 
eral miles the water of this brook finds a way to the Souhegan, 
through the extension of the valley southward. 

There is, almost of course, the inevitable Devil's Oven, the 
interior blackened with smoke, the most reasonable and obvious 
inference being that His Bedford Majesty united in his person 
the functions of preacher, sculptor and cook. 



46 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

The foregoing description of the Devil's Pulpit, although ex- 
tended, is inadequate when viewed from the stand-point of its 
importance as a factor in the measurement of geological time or 
the value of its testimony to the stupendous work performed by- 
water in a distant age ; and the preparation of this paper was un- 
dertaken partly with the hope that the attention of geological 
experts might be enlisted in explaining its further relations to 
the general subject of glacial phenomena. 

We now find established, by evidence as ample as it is con- 
vincing, four prime facts : i. A remarkable example of water 
erosion upon a grand scale. 2. The dry bed of a once powerful 
and long-continued stream. 3. That the stream was fed mainly 
by water from melting ice-fields. 4. That there is no evidence 
of the existence of any stream capable of performing the work 
within the historic period. 

It must further be concluded that a stream of great volume 
flowed at the same time through the great north and south val- 
ley to which allusion has been made, and that extensive sections 
of this valley were occupied by one or more great lakes. It on- 
ly remains to corroborate the conclusions reached by citations 
from admitted authorities. The following extract from Wright's 
"Ice Age in North America" will well support the views ad- 
vanced, and at the same time afford an impressive example of 
the part played by glacial dams. Prof. Wright's account is 
based upon detailed surveys by Mr. Upham, the results of which 
are published in the New Hampshire Geological Reports : 

" The Contoocook river now empties into the Merrimack a lit- 
tle above Concord and flows in a direction north-northeast. The 
present outlet was, towards the close of the glacial period, ob- 
structed by ice some time after it had melted off from the south- 
eastern portion of the valley. During that period a lake was 
held in the portion of the valley freed from ice, at a height suffi- 
cient to turn the drainage temporarily to the south and south- 
east. At first the drainage was over the water-shed in Rindge, 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 47 

through Ashburnham and Winchendon, Mass., and thence into 
the Connecticut. The reality of this line of drainage is evi- 
denced by the extensive kames and gravel deposits extending 
from the Contoocook valley through the towns of Rindge and 
and Winchendon." 

This evidence is as interesting as the facts are remarkable, but 
that which follows is to us of more absorbing interest, since it 
reinforces our assumption of a great water-way, fed from the 
the same sources, and stretching southward immediately west 
of the Dunbarton ridge and the Uncanoonucks. Our authority 
continues : 

" When the ice had withdrawn a little further north, an outlet 
was open to the southeast into the Souhegan river, and thence 
into the Merrimack. The evidence here is also conclusive that, 
for a period, a stream of water eighty feet deep poured through 
this pass, and the lake formed in front of the ice was in its great- 
est extent thirty miles long, and from two hundred to two hun- 
dred and fifty feet in depth. The evidence of this remains in 
delta terraces at that level formed at various points where 
streams came into the lake." 

Here, then, we have high testimony to the existence of other 
ice-fed streams and lakes nearly at our own door, distinctly cor- 
roborative of the claims heretofore advanced. We are unable 
to determine whether any portion of the current of this great 
water-course contributed to swell the tremendous torrent which 
rushed down through the gorge of the Devil's Pulpit. It is cer- 
tain, however, that the outlet of this lateral valley opened into 
the great Contoocook lake, finally finding its way into the Mer- 
rimack ; and it is altogether probable that the enormous water- 
supply required was derived wholly from the glacial sheet which 
still hung upon the summit and flanks of the Uncanoonucks. 

We are able to add an additional link to the chain of evidence 
already presented, in the existence of extensive clay-beds at the 
site of the lake referred to. Before the day of railroads these 
deposits were extensively worked, as many as twenty million of 



48 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

brick being made in a single year. These were hauled to Reed's 
ferry and transported down the Merrimack to Lowell. In the 
famous Manchester and Milford Railroad hearing a witness tes- 
tified that he had clay enough upon his farm to build another 
city as large as Manchester. Much other testimony to the same 
effect sufficiently demonstrates an immense deposition of clay in 
the basin of this ancient lake. 

For the present we reluctantly draw the curtain upon the 
series of scenes presented, some description of which has been 
attempted in these opening chapters. For the most part there 
has been little exhibiting nature in her gentler moods, having 
thus far witnessed her more terrible yet fascinating aspects. It 
is still reserved to modern science to continue the investigation, 
to add to the already vast store of accumulated facts, and by 
its method of patient investigation and research interpret for us 
other problems which await solution. We confidently abide the 
future ; the spirit of inquiry, the interrogating attitude of the 
age, made not less but more reverent by its courage, assure to 
us further and perhaps more astounding revelations. 

Time and circumstances permitting, some following chapters 
will be devoted to the " Flora and Fauna" of Derryfield and its 
contiguous territory. 



^optributiops 



TD THE 



JHistoryof Old Derryfield, 



BY WILLIAM ELLERY MOORE. 



PART THIRD. 
PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. 



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TO THE 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD, 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

THE LOCAL FLORA AND FAUNA. 



BRIEF BOTANICAL SKETCH — EVIDENCES OF ARCTIC LIFE — PARTIAL 

LIST OF TREES, SHRUBS AND FLOWERS — WILD ANIMALS, 

BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS, ETC. 



BY WILLIAM E. MOORE. 



A PAPER READ BEFORE THE 



MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 



PART III. 



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR. 



PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. 



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In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, 

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CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO THE 

HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD 

BY WILLIAM E. MOORE. 



CHAPTER VI. 

BRIEF BOTANICAL SKETCH — EVIDENCES OF ARCTIC LIFE — PARTIAL LIST 
OF TREES, SHRUBS AND FLOWERS. 

All plants are animals, minus the power of locomotion. This 
lack is in large measure supplied by their wonderful power of 
adaptation, and in the myriad methods of dispersion by which 
they really move. Having neither wings nor feet, they do not 
walk but contrive to be transported. They lie in wait for the 
wind upon which they ride ; lakes and rivers bear them from 
shore to shore, from mountain to plain, and ocean currents waft 
them to friendly or inhospitable coasts. They hide in the depths 
of earth and lurk in the crannies of rocks ; they cling to claws 
and talons of bird or beast, and with deceitful simulation procure 
themselves to be swallowed, that peradventure they shall be cast 
out upon propitious soil, to await their resurrection morn. We 
behold everywhere this curious paradox of the plant-world, inca- 
pable of motion and yet migratory ; and we may well look with 
amazement upon the exercise of this marvellous instinct which 
enables plants, under all the countless mutations of climate and 
soil, to reproduce and perpetuate their kind. 

The word extinct, written after the names of vegetable forms 
which no longer exist, need not here concern us. That this 



$2 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

was once the home of a pre-historic flora is not open to question, 
but our limits forbid more than this mere allusion, leaving the 
imagination to supply the details of that first world-garden whose 
leaves fell and whose flowers faded unseen. 

We do not design to add to our description an account of the 
large number of trees, shrubs, flowers or weeds, not indigenous, 
but introduced by accident or design, and the writer's limitations 
preclude any attempt at a scientific botanical essay. From an 
unpublished " History of Andover," New Hampshire, we ven- 
ture to make the following extract: "The dwarf willow and 
white birch were probably our earliest trees, succeeding lichens 
and mosses, after the climate of the ice-age of this region became 
sufficiently ameliorated to allow a growth of shrubs. The dwarf 
willow now grows at the extreme north part of Spitzbergen, 
within eight degrees of the Arctic pole, and the white birch 
appears near the north cape of Norway." 

To the foregoing we are tempted to add the Norwegian pine, 
the mountain cranberry, and the hardy highland blueberry. It 
is probable that the hemlock, the pines, firs, spruces and hack- 
matacks, with their congeners, came next, followed later by the 
remaining deciduous trees which are with us to-day. The little 
willow, now found growing in cold land, is the descendant of its 
dwarf ancestor referred to. For thousands of years the struggle 
for life went on, the law of the survival of the fittest prevailing 
in this as in other organic kingdoms, until the rich covering of 
our hill slopes and mountain crests, and the deeper soil of plain, 
valley and meadow gleamed with verdure. Beneath the forest 
and field growth of to-day the fallen generations lie, in their de- 
cay enriching a soil which had scantily served their wants. 

We share with others a deep regret at the destruction, almost 
extermination, of our forest trees ; throughout nearly the entire 
area of central and southern New Hampshire there are roundly 
no old growth trees remaining, while the great timber tracts of 
Coos are attacked year after year, its wooded acres despoiled by 
the axe of the lumberman. Appeals and protests have been 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 53 

made in vain ; lovers of nature have bewailed the rapid razing 
of our mountain groves, on the aesthetic ground of disfigurement 
and consequent loss of attraction to the summer tourist. But 
these sentimental appeals have no effect upon the lumber kings 
who have possessed themselves of our fair heritage. We must 
first create an educated public sentiment, resting upon grounds 
of public interest, and powerful enough to invoke the strong arm 
of the state. To accomplish this it must be shown that the de- 
nudation of the mountain slopes is a distinct menace to the prop- 
erty and lives of our citizens. A paid employe has written and 
caused to be printed in one of our city dailies an article in apol- 
ogy and defence of the lumber interest. This was evidently 
inspired by the unexampled freshet of the spring of 1896, which 
involved wide-spread disaster, a burdensome interruption to pup- 
lie travel, and a financial loss in the state of more than a million 
dollars. The writer says the unprecedented and rapid rise of 
the mountain tributaries was owing to a warm sun acting upon 
reserves of snow ; that the exposed slopes were coated with ice, 
and that the melting snow, reinforced by rain, sped unchecked 
into the valleys. This was all true; but he did not tell us how 
the slopes became bare and ice-covered, nor did he suggest that 
if the protecting timber-fringe had been allowed by the lumber 
magnates to stand upon the steep flanks of the White Hills, that 
the disastrous freshet of March would have been averted. We 
utter this warning, at the risk of its being considered out of 
place, anxious only to contribute to public enlightenment upon 
a theme which must soon compel attention. The eyes of our 
great manufacturing interests already look askance toward the 
north, and their ears are primed to hear the roar of advancing 
floods. It has already become a question of self-protection, and 
efficient action is to-day imperatively needed. 

Without further digression, we proceed at once to present a 
list of the more common trees and shrubs now to be found in 
or near this locality, a list necessarily incomplete, adding occas- 
ional observations concerning them ; 



54 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

White Pine, Pinns strobns. This magnificent tree, which in 
colonial days alone had the honor of being marked with the 
broad arrow of King George, formerly grew in great abundance 
in this neighborhood, especially along the river and brook val- 
leys. Forty years ago great pines flourished in what are now 
compact portions of the city, along the ravines, and upon Ray, 
Mile, Christian, Cemetery, and Cohas brooks, while the various 
highways were lined with primitive forests. A group of huge 
pines occupied a ravine on the south of Granite street, now the 
site of wholesale warehouses, and more than fifty years ago the 
children of the "cold-water army," in what was known as the 
Washingtonian movement, held a picnic in this grove. A little 
later the children of the Unitarian sunday-school, not standing 
in fear of ghosts, enjoyed a picnic in the then beautiful grove 
of the Valley cemetery ; in both these celebrations the writer 
was an interested and hungry participant. 

Pitch Pine, Pinns rigida. Fifty years ago the sand-plains of 
Derryfield were covered with a dense growth of these trees, ex- 
tending over large areas to the north, south and east, as well as 
upon the plains west of the river. Nearly the whole section not 
actually built upon or under tillage, was invaded by pines. The 
growth reached to Lowell street, immediately back of the first 
high school building, over nearly all the territory east of Pine, 
and rabbits were hunted and trapped in what is now Tremont 
common. Parker was murdered in the pines just east of Beech 
street, and a man tired of living in the woods hung himself on 
Monument square. 

Norway or Red Pine, Pinus resinosa. This beautiful variety 
was once not uncommon, but is now rarely seen hereabout. It is 
remarkably free from knots and grows " as straight as a loon's 
hind-leg." 

White Spruce, Abies alba. Formerly existing upon Bald hill 
and the Uncanoonucks, but now exterminated. 

Black Spruce, Abies nigra. Never plentiful here, and now 
scarce, growing only as a shrub. 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 55 

Balsam Fir, Abies balsamea. A graceful and symmetrical tree, 
formerly adorning our hill and mountain crests, but now very 
rare, being brought here from a distance to supply the demand 
for Christmas trees. 

Hemlock, Abies Canadensis. This extremely beautiful tree 
is still common in moist woods, in plateau ravines, and upon the 
higher ridges. But the once great hemlock groves bearing fine 
specimens of the old-growth giants, have long since disappeared. 
It may not be generally known that the trunk of a full-grown 
hemlock yields a bitter, resinous gum, which has never become 
popular for chewing purposes. One of our earliest recollections 
is the gathering of materials for hemlock-brooms for one of our 
grandmothers. 

Juniper or Ground Hemlock, Juniperus communis. This low, 
creeping shrub prevails in open woods and dry pastures ; the 
more arid the soil the better it seems to flourish, and a field or 
pasture attacked by it is doomed, as nothing else can grow up- 
on the ground it covers. This pasture-pest seldom reaches a 
height of more than two feet, while single shrubs are frequent- 
ly more than twelve feet in diameter. Axe and fire supply the 
only remedy, and must be used without stint. It is the vegeta- 
ble octopus of creation. 

Rock or Sugar Maple, Acer saccharinum. With the exception 
of scattered groves and single specimens, this valuable tree has 
disappeared, although never sufficiently plentiful here to encour- 
age the manufacture of maple sugar ; but a few thousands are 
fortunately growing as shade-trees. 

White or Soft Maple, Acer dasycarpum. This variety grows 
abundantly in moist lands, and is still common perhaps because 
it has little value. 

Red Maple, Acer rubrum. This extremely beautiful tree fav- 
ors wet lands, but flourishes at considerable elevations. Its 
scarlet blossoms offer to the eye one of the earliest and most 
grateful promises of spring. 

Striped Maple, Acer Pennsylvaticum. This member of the 



56 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

maple family is commonly known as Moosewood, and is encoun- 
tered in low woods. 

Mountain Maple, Acer spicatum. This was formerly common 
but is now infrequently seen. 

Swamp Maple. This variety we thus christen independently, 
as the authorities do not aid us. It is undeniably a maple, but 
bears a large single-winged seed vessel, while all the text books 
assign a double-winged pod to the maple and make mention of 
no other. We have observed another variety which produces 
a double seed-pod, the winged halves of which are almost invari- 
able shed single. This curious habit is not referred to by the 
authorities. We dismiss the maples by observing that among 
living specimens of these trees those of first or ancestral growth 
in Derryfield can be counted upon the fingers of one hand. 

White Oak, Quercus alba. These were very common in this 
locality, but have now largely gone the way of the rock maples, 
alike hewn and consumed, their diminished successors occupy- 
ing the scrub lands. An ancient oak, a relic of the native woods, 
still stands in the southwestern quarter of Concord square, and a 
few others similarly survive. A very fine specimen stands on 
the south side of Milford beyond Carroll street, and here and 
there are others at wide intervals. 

Red Oak, Quercus rubra. This was the rail-splitting, stave- 
making tree of our ancestors, in the days of hand-made barrels 
and casks. Though formerly plentiful and attaining a great size, 
from sixty to eighty feet, good specimens have become as rare 
as cooper-shops. 

Scrub Oak, Quercus illicifolia. This little tree, scarcely more 
than a shrub, supplants a once nobler growth and like many an- 
other worthless thing flourishes. 

Beech, Fagas ferruginea. This strikingly handsome forest 
tree is fast disappearing, noble specimens being extremely rare. 
None miss it more sadly than the squirrels, the harvest of nuts 
supplying them with food. Gone are the ancient groves through 
which the wild turkey stalked ; gone are the initials of colonial 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 5/ 

lovers, rudely carved upon the smooth and mottled trunks. Civ- 
ilization has brought us much, but of how much have we been 
robbed ? 

Elm, Ulmns Americana. The elm is still flourishing, growing 
wild about us in all directions, and native and transplanted spec- 
imens of great size are numerous. We cannot be too grateful 
for the wise forethought which resulted in the fine avenues of 
shade elms which now adorn our older thoroughfares. 

White Birch, Betula populaefolia. The ancient growth is but 
a memory, having gone with the canoe of the Indian, but the 
birches are so persistent and prolific that their diminished rep- 
resentatives are still seen on every hand. We add to the above 
the Grey, Silver, Red, and Yellow or Golden Birch. Whole 
generations have gone to peg and toothpick-mills, and countless 
cords to the wood-yards. One would now stand in amazement 
before a birch large enough to furnish bark in one piece to make 
a canoe fifteen feet long. There is said to be a golden birch in 
Andover with a circle of shade large enough to seat five hun- 
dred people. 

Black Birch, Betula lenta. This is not uncommon and may 
be recognized by the aromatic flavor of the twigs. The larger 
trees were formerly made into table-tops, which may still be 
found in old farmhouse kitchens, and also supplied hand-made 
yokes and other wares of husbandry. 

Brown or Basket Ash, Fraxunis sambucifolia. Once common 
but now met only as scattered trees. The White, Prickly, and 
Mountain Ash are now scarce. The ash is undesirable as a 
shade tree, the leaves coming late and going early. 

Chestnut, Castanea vesca. This tree grew and still grows in 
all directions, and flourished in such profusion as to cause the 
whole section hereabout, including all the adjoining towns, to be 
known as the " Nutfield country," long before permanent settle- 
ments were made. Many extensive groves have been swept 
away and the forests culled for material for fence-posts and rail- 
road ties, the work of extermination still proceeding. The near 



58 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

extinction of our nut-bearing trees will soon deprive us of the 
red and grey squirrel. 

Hickory, Carya alba. In addition to the Shagbark there were 
several other nut-bearing varieties once numerous. The great 
value of the wood for fuel, as well as the demand for its use in 
wood-working arts, have contributed to its practical extinction 
in this locality. Doubtless, God could make a better nut than 
the hickory, but doubtless God never did. 

Butternut, Juglans cinerea. This is still common in open pas- 
tures and along roadside ways. The outer bark of the nut was 
extensively used by our grandmothers in dying wool. The wri- 
ter well remembers wearing the brown home-spun. 

Poplar or American Aspen, Populous tremuloidus. Formerly 
quite common, now comparatively infrequent. The bass wood 
is still here and still valueless. 

The Black Cherry is frequently seen in open fields and pas- 
tures. This is the " rum-cherry " of our spirit-loving forefathers, 
bad imitations of which are sold to-day in various rum-holes. 
There is also a wild red cherry and the choke-cherry. A great 
many boys have not died by drinking milk after eating freely of 
the latter fruit. 

There are still a number of varieties of the genus Willow, in- 
cluding the Osier or Basket Willow. The common willow is 
undoubtedly doomed to immortality, as it is impossible to destroy 
a tree that will grow without roots and flourish after death. 

A Wild Plum, Prunus Americana, formerly grew in plenty 
but is now rare. 

Other varieties of trees, both native and introduced, will sug- 
gest themselves to the reader, such as the alders, elders, leather- 
wood, mountain sumach, horn beam, leverwood, etc. 

The group of shrubs is large, but we must content ourselves 
with a mere mention of the more common examples : We still 
have the white-rod or withe-wood, the fence-mender of the old- 
time farmer ; the witch-hazel, curious and interesting in its habit 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 59 

of late flowering, the towsled yellow blossoms surrounding the 
ripe seed-pods, which like miniature howitzers discharge their 
contents to an incredible distance ; the button-bush, swamp and 
highland huckleberry, blueberry, high and low blackberry, red 
and black raspberry, thimble-berry, hardback, iron-weed, high- 
land and swamp laurel, sheep laurel or lamb-kill, cornel, poison 
sumach or dogwood, bayberry, sweet fern, swamp and sweet 
brier rose, skunk currant ; creeping, bush and climbing poison 
ivy, thorn-bush, etc.. The number of shrubs omitted probably 
largely exceeds the number above enumerated. 

The grasses, native and introduced, now number more than 
thirty varieties. 

We append a partial list of additional flowering and non-flow- 
ering plants : Wild grape, clematis, woodbine, cranberry, May- 
flower, club and tree-club moss, columbine, true and false Solo- 
mon's seal, checkerberry, partridge berry, sarsaparilla, cardinal 
flower, arrowhead, pipsissewa, the blue closed, five-fingered and 
fringed gentian, Jack-in-the-pulpit, Indian tobacco, bunch berry, 
skunk cabbage, fire-weed, pyrola, gold-thread, garget, pitcher- 
plant, mullein or the American velvet plant, purple and yellow 
lady's slipper, several sorts of milk-weed, St. John's wort, white 
and pink yarrow, pearl everlasting, cinquefoil, yellow, and sour 
or narrow leaved dock, nettle, sweet flag, cat-tail, white water- 
lily, cow-lily, pickerel weed, flower de luce, blue flag, blue-eyed 
and star-grass ; yellow, and red or tiger lilies, many varieties of 
violets, the rushes, the thistles, purslane, robin-run-round, pig- 
weed, called in the south lamb's quarter and used for greens; 
burdock, screw-stem, self-heal, wild morning glory, smartweed, 
purple orchis, spring and fall dandelion, wild sunflower, daisy or 
white weed, black-eyed-Susan or ox-eye daisy, horsetail, many 
species of goldenrod, several members of the aster group, spear- 
mint, peppermint and other square-stems, pennyroyal, mother- 
wort, thoroughwort, elecampane, wild buckwheat, artichoke, 
garden wormwood, formerly supposed to be necessary to digest 



60 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

new rum and prevent nausea ; ragweed, accused of causing hay- 
fever ; primroses, plaintain, snake's head, buttercup, cowslip, 
wild pink, chickweed, Indian mallow, field and wood sorrel, twin 
Linnaea, jewel weed, may weed, touch-me-not, deadly nightshade, 
wild carrot, wild parsnip, wild strawberry, yellow gerardia, etc. 
Besides these and many others we have lovage, liverwort, sweet 
Sicily, baneberry, joint-weed, bind-knot weed, vervain, skull-cap, 
hoarhound, crowfoot, horse-radish, mustard, blue harebell, wild 
honeysuckle, colt's-foot, tansy, bell wort, queen of the meadow, 
and others unnamed but not unknown. Of parasitic plants we 
have the curious form known as the "Dodder." We have also 
growing here the dog-tooth violet, which is really a lily, as well as 
several native orchids, among them the so-called Lady's Tresses, 
the pink Arethusa, and the most exquisitely beautiful flower of 
our wild collection, the Pogonia ophioglossoides. 

For a full list of ferns and cryptogamic plants we refer the 
reader to the text-books, since any attempt to array them here 
would be a servile reproduction. Should our brief and inade- 
quate account serve to arouse in others a love of forest and field 
lore we shall be contented ; and we venture to indulge the hope 
that some one better fitted will soon prepare an elaborate and 
more exhaustive monogragh of our local flora. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE WILD ANIMALS OF DERRYFIELD. 

It requires no severe exercise of the imagination to associate 
the presence of arctic animals with an arctic climate. During 
the rigor of the glacial epoch there is little room for doubt that 
the arctic fox, reindeer and polar bear roamed over the plains and 
that the seal and walrus were found upon the coast. It is equal- 
ly certain that other forms, partly owing to the absence of food, 
became extinct, their embedded bones alone remaining. Among 
these extinct types were the mastodon and woolly elephant. At 
the same time a great exodus of animals took place to the south, 
fleeing before the threatening advance of the great ice-sheet, 
again returning as the ice retreated. 

The Panther or Puma, Felts concolor. This ferocious and dan- 
gerous animal once lurked in our forests, and was occasionally 
killed by the early hunters and trappers. Almost alone of all 
others, this beast had no fear of man, who at any time was liable 
to be attacked. A panther was killed in Pittsfield some years 
before the settlement of the town, in 1770. A party of hunters 
came up from Durham, through what was then an unbroken 
wilderness, after a pack of wolves which had been killing their 
sheep. There had been a snow-fall, hardened with a firm crust, 
over which new snow had fallen, so that travelling was good 
and the wolves easily tracked. These hardy men followed the 
trail over the summit of Catamount. Here night came on, and 
being tired with the long tramp the party, three in number, 
went to sleep upon a ledge. When preparing breakfast the next 
morning they discovered an enormous panther watching them 
as he laid crouched upon the limb of an oak. The three men 
fired simultaneously and the animal fell dead. This incident, 
the details of which were given to us by Mr. John C. French, 



62 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

gave rise to the name of " Catamount," a considerable eminence 
to the east of the village. Some confusion has long prevailed 
and still exists concerning the panther, his true habitat being 
Asia and Africa, while his cousin in our continent is limited to 
South America, the Mexican Cordilleras and the Rocky Moun- 
tains, and is otherwise known as the puma or cougar. Its pres- 
ent range is probably from Texas to Patagonia, but there is no 
doubt that it was formerly wider and more northerly. In North 
America it has been in the east generally known as the cata- 
mount, and in the west as the painter. 

Wild Cat or Bay Lynx, Felts catus. This variety is also dan- 
gerous and will sometimes attack man. It is known in the ver- 
nacular as the "bob-tail," and is a very ugly customer at close 
quarters. Before Manchester became a city, the highway lead- 
ing to Goffe's falls ran through thick woods for nearly the whole 
distance. A man was hauling a load of wood into town, accom- 
panied by a small clog, and after reaching a point near the Val- 
ley cemetery, a wild-cat came out of the woods and attacked the 
dog. The driver took a round four-foot stick of wood from his 
load and killed the cat, bringing the carcass into town, where it 
was for some time on exhibition in a window of the old town 
house, and the writer well remembers seeing it. They were in 
the early clays quite common, but are now seldom seen, though 
occasionally encountered to this day. Only last September the 
writer with his nephew heard the wailing, long-drawn and lone- 
some cry of a lynx, probably calling for its mate. This was in 
the thick woods of Tamworth, sixty miles away, but in a short 
half-day journey these wild-cats might make a honeymoon trip 
to Derryfield Park. 

Canada Lynx or Loupcervier, Felts Canadensis. This is an 
extremely shy little animal, not prone to attack man or beast un- 
less driven to a corner. It is also popularly known as a wild-cat, 
and was once common here. 

Wolf, Cams occidentalis. None have been seen here outside 
of a menagerie for a hundred years ; before that time they had 



HlStORY OF DERRYFtELD. 63 

to be reckoned with, especially in winter when food was scarce. 
These destructive beasts were persistently hunted by early set- 
tlers, and large numbers were trapped or shot, each capture at 
once ridding the settlement of an enemy and giving the captors 
a valuable pelt. The writer has never seen a wolf but has met 
an old gentleman who saw one in his boyhood. He said they 
looked at each other for a minute ; the boy then threw up his 
hands, yelled and ran towards home, and the wolf ran the other 
way. The cowardly nature of wolves and their habit of hunting 
in packs is well known. 

Wolverine, Gulo luscus. This d'minutive, carnivorous glut- 
ton has been supposed to be not nearer to us than Michigan, but 
on the authority of the late William Little this animal was once 
in New Hampshire and had been seen in Warren. 

Black Bear, Ursus Americanus. This terror of sheep, calves, 
pigs and woman-folk was common in this locality in the time 
of the first settlers and long afterwards, disappearing about the 
first of the present century, with the exception of wanderers, 
which were seen here as late as 1834. Though classed with the 
carnivora, the black bear is a vegetarian, subsisting mainly upon 
edible plants and fruit, especially blueberries, of which he is ex- 
tremely fond, and indulging in a diet of honey whenever he can 
get at a wild hive. He is fond of green corn and created more 
havoc in corn-fields than in any other way. He is not especially 
dangerous, and stories of terrific hand-to-hand encounters with 
bears are greatly exaggerated. Bears very rarely permit them- 
selves to be seen. The writer has climbed, fished and camped 
among the mountains in the wooded regions about Albany and 
Waterville, and from Livermore Falls to Ossipee, where they 
are still somewhat numerous, but in twenty-five years of such 
experience has not had the pleasure of seeing or even hearing a 
black bear. We were finally permitted to see one from the top 
of a stage-coach, on an excursion from the Crawford House to 
the " Flume and Bowlder." When young the bear is playful, 
easily tamed, and is an expert in the art of hugging. 






64 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

Moose, Alee Americanus. Hunters now seek Canadian covers 
or the wilds of Maine to kill these magnificent animals, which 
are even there becoming scarce. They were once numerous in 
this section, but withdrew before the advancing settlers. The 
well-known moose yards on sheltered slopes and thickets of the 
neighboring mountains, especially in Deerfield and Nottingham, 
were visited by early colonial hunters, the deep snow making 
the herded moose an easy prey. 

Deer, Cervus Americanus. This is the common fallow-deer, 
known generally as the red or brown deer. One hundred years 
ago and earlier deer were more common than cattle are to-day, 
and were especially valuable, serving both for food and clothing. 
The skins were home-tanned and made into jackets, mittens, 
leggins and boots, or made useful in a great variety of ways, in 
making chair seats, snow-shoes, etc. While the deer was at first 
killed solely for these purposes, there came a time when they 
were hunted nearly to extermination, at the close of the Revo- 
lution, on account of the great scarcity of grain. The crime of 
the deer consisted in their eating and tramping down the grow- 
ing crops of wheat, corn and rye. So much mischief was done 
in this way that many towns offered a bounty for their destruc- 
tion, and the office of "deer keeper" was created, the duty of 
that official being to abate the deer nuisance. They are still 
common in the northern part of the state, and have been seen 
even within the city bounds during the last twelve-month. 

Caribou or American Reindeer, Tarangus zangifer. This is a 
woodland ranger, now confined to Canada and northern Maine, 
or found in the region of the great lakes. 

Beaver, Castor fiber. This wonderful animal has furnished 
the world with an example of intelligent instinct scarcely paral- 
elled in the whole range of the brute creation. Engineer, sur- 
veyor, architect and builder, his achievements are comparable to 
those of men supplied with the tools of civilization. The exist- 
ence of beaver-meadows and the finding of logs knawed asunder 






HISTORY OF DERRYFIELt*. 6$ 

by their industrious teeth testify to their former residence here. 
The beaver passed with the last century, but we were informed 
by the late Joseph M. Rowell, one of the oldest native-born res- 
idents of Derryfield, that he had in his boyhood seen their fresh 
skins brought in by trappers, and he distinctly remembered what 
was pointed out to him as a "beaver slide," on the bank of an 
inlet to the Piscataquog river. The fur of this animal has always 
been valuable, and many an old settler paid for his first cow with 
a bundle of beaver skins. 

The Black or Silver-Grey Fox, an animal of the genus Vulpes, 
is now seldom found within the limits of the state ; once here in 
considerable numbers, stray specimens having been seen within 
the last quarter-century. The skins are now valuable and are 
sometimes in use for hearth-mats. 

Red Fox, Vulpes fulvus. This cunning and mischievous ani- 
mal still survives in this and neighboring towns, and notwith- 
standing there are more hunters than game the fox is said to be 
upon the increase. His favorite dishes are domestic fowls, the 
larger and fatter the better, and he makes nothing of carrying 
off a full-grown gobbler. When young they are easily tamed, 
but not easily kept, as they will escape if possible. The fox is. 
a thief by nature, a criminal by heredity, and takes to the road 
as inevitably as a highwayman. He is the embodiment of cun- 
ning and adroitness, and in folk-lore tales is always assigned the 
part of combined rogue and villain, which he perfectly plays in 
real life. It is said that he has never less than two holes to his 
burrow, and it is certain he has a good many strings to his bow. 
His survival to this day, amid the civilized surroundings of a 
great city, is little less than a miracle. 

Raccoon, Procyon lotor. Most of our older citizens have seen 
and hunted the " coon " in his hollow. Year after year, since the 
larger sorts of game became scarce, the sport of coon-hunting 
has gone on under the eyes of the October moon, but in spite 
of men and dogs the sly old coon contrives to live, even within 
6 



66 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

gunshot hearing of the mayor's office, and coon-suppers are still 
served by the chef 'of the Derryfield Club. In old times the fur 
of this animal was extensively used for home-made overcoats 
and winter caps. As long as there are country corn-fields there 
will be coons. The raccoon belongs to the bear family and like 
him lives upon both a flesh and vegetable diet. 

Otter, Lutra Canadensis. This aquatic, fish-feeding animal 
was formerly not infrequent here, haunting the trout-streams, 
being partial to fish without scales. They are expert swimmers 
and divers and marvellously swift in movement. A single pair 
of otters will depopulate an ordinary trout brook in an incredibly 
short time. They are now rare this side the upper Coos mead- 
ows. Their fur is very valuable. 

Mink, Patorins vison. This fur-bearing animal belongs to the 
weasel family and is carnivorous. It is semi-aquatic and makes 
its burrow usually in the bank of a river or brook. Lines of 
traps were laid along the Merrimack, Piscataquog, Black Brook 
and their tributaries, and along other streams to the north, by 
down-country trappers, many years before any permanent occu- 
pation or settlement. The "Mink Hills" in Salisbury received 
their name more than one hundred and sixty years ago. The 
animals most sought after were the beaver, otter, fisher-cat and 
mink, but the traps were sometimes sprung by less desirable 
creatures. Mink skins were early esteemed and even passed 
current in lieu of money for many years. The mink is here 
practically extinct, though stray specimens are occasionally met. 
They are also fond of trout and will travel long distances to 
obtain them. The late Bradbury P. Cilley had for years a small 
trout-pond on his premises at the corner of Amherst and Walnut 
streets. These fish, which had attained good size, disappeared 
in a night. The owner supposed some one had caught them 
with line and hook, until the real culprits were discovered to be 
a pair of minks. These had made their way along the course of 
Mile brook, which ran for a distance of many blocks in a closed 
culvert through a thickly settled part of the city. The outlet of 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 67 

the brook was then into a pond on Hanover square, within a 
few rods of the trout. And yet many people think that man 
is the only animal that knows anything. The fish in the large 
Derryfield trout-preserves, a few miles south of us, have been 
also destroyed by minks. These depredations were committed 
within the last ten years. 

Muskrat or Musquash, Fiber zibithicus. Common to-day and 
in all places where there is water and comparative seclusion. 
It is probable they even now prowl through the covered culverts 
of the city. The Indians made use of them for food, and Dr. 
Saccalexis Glossian, an Oldtown Indian formerly residing here, 
pronounced them delicious. This depraved taste is hard to be 
understood by delicate white men accustomed to pig's liver and 
stewed kidneys. 

Hedge Hog or American Porcupine, Hystrix dorsata. This 
curious animal is seldom seen, as it is strictly nocturnal in its 
habits and haunts the most secluded spots, usually among rock- 
masses at the foot of high cliffs. Their food is said to consist 
of insects, worms, snails and salamanders. The dog that tackles 
a full-grown hedge-hog will be consumed with regret and his con- 
fidence in himself will be impaired for about three weeks. 

Skunk or Pole Cat, Mephitis Americana. The less said about 
this unsavory animal the better, but we regret being obliged to 
record the fact that he is still with us, even at our cellar-doors. 
Within three years, in the basement of a house on Union street, 
between Concord and Lowell, and hard by the Bishop's palace, a 
box-trap was baited with the neck of a chicken, and his crown- 
lavender highness captured therein and afterwards successfully 
chloroformed by a woman ; and yet some of us are deluded with 
the idea that woman needs our protecting care. 

Woodchuck or Ground Hog, Arctomys mondx. This trouble- 
some farmer's pest has always been and is still common here, 
and is destructive to bean-vines and other growing crops, espec- 
ially to the red clover, trampling down much more than is eaten. 
The tanned skins are extremely tough and durable, and were 



68 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

formerly cut up in narrow strips and braided into whip-lashes. 
The process used by farmer boys fifty years ago was as follows : 
Bury the hides in wet ashes, to remove the hair ; then put them 
in soft soap over night ; take out and scrape the skin and hang 
it over the back of an old chair in the attic — this is important ; 
let it get dry but not too dry, and finally work by hand until it 
becomes soft and pliable. The writer has used these home-made 
whips when riding "the old mare," in the delightful pastime of 
plowing on a side hill. It is not generally known that the wood- 
chuck is a good whistler ; he has a habit of sitting in front of 
his burrow in a thunder-shower and uttering a series of short, 
sharp notes, twelve or more in number, in a curious diminuendo. 
They will sometimes whistle when about to be taken from a trap, 
but that performance is usually brief. 

Rabbit or Northern Hare, Lepus caniculus. Common always 
and even now plentiful though hunters are numerous. It is a 
rodent and very prolific. From being brown in the summer the 
fur, which is of small value, changes to nearly white in winter, 
and affords an instance of protective coloring. 

Weasel, Putorioits vulgaris. There are several varieties, in- 
cluding the white weasel, stoat or ermine, the tawny weasel, the 
small weasel and the little nimble weasel. Though so small as 
to make a hole in the snow no larger than a broom-handle, the 
weasel is a terror to hens and chickens, which he kills by a bite 
in the neck from which he sucks the blood. They are said to 
be spry enough to get away between the flash of a rifle and the 
bullet. The fur is valuable, and some weasels with glass eyes 
may still be seen clinging to the necks of fair women. 

Grey Squirrel, Sciurus Carolinensis. The grey and black, the 
chickaree or red, the chipping, chipmunk or striped squirrel, and 
the flying-squirrel, once very common here, are now compara- 
tively scarce. In size the black squirrel equals or exceeds the 
full-grown grey ; these are now rarely seen but have been killed 
here within forty years. A white chipmunk is said to have been 
recently shot in Pembroke ; probably a freak, 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 69 

Several other valuable fur-bearing animals were once found 
here, among them the sable or pine-marten, and Pennant's mar- 
ten or fisher-cat. These were formerly trapped in great numbers 
but are now generally confined to the White Mountain region 
and northerly. We have seen the tracks of the fisher-cat along 
the mountain brooks in Albany. 

There were several varieties of moles, some of which are still 
with us. Among these were the star-nose, shrew, Say's least- 
shrew, and Brewer's shrew mole. Similarly, we had Wilson's 
meadow mouse, American white-footed mouse, Leconte's pine 
or field mouse, the jumping mouse, and soon after the settlers 
had provided themselves with homes the house mouse appeared. 
The last-named are extremely dangerous. With advancing civ- 
ilization came also black and Norway rats, which now make the 
lives of women one long-drawn and suspicious misery. We have 
also the common little slate-colored bat, which, unlike the flying 
sqirrrel, actually flies. There is not the slightest truth in the 
nursery fable that bats will suck the blood of sleeping infants, 
or that they purposely fly into heads of hair. 

Concerning birds, now or formerly found here, it will be con- 
venient to divide them into four classes : First, game birds or 
birds fit for food, hunted for that purpose. Among these were 
the wild turkey, spruce partridge, wild pigeon, and the ruffed 
grouse ; our woods once abounded with these fine game-birds, 
but they are now practically extinct. Of those surviving, the 
brown partridge or American quail, woodcock, wild goose, the 
black duck, wood duck and sheldrake, and very rarely upland 
plover, may be mentioned. Second, song and other birds now 
rare — bald eagle, golden eagle, black hawk, goshawk, great horn- 
ed owl, and long-eared and short-eared owl ; three-toed banded 
woodpecker, the pileated, red-headed, yellow-bellied, and black- 
banded-three-toed-woodpecker, and the green and night heron. 
Third, in addition to the above the ears of the early settlers were 
greeted with the notes of not less than twenty native birds, all 



JO CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

rare at this day and rapidly becoming extinct. Fourth, the mi- 
grants, rapidly joining the class of rare birds ; these include also 
about twenty varieties. 

Of birds which were considered common twenty-five years ago 
Mr. William Little gave a list of eighty-five, and even in the 
brief period which has since elapsed not less than one-third of 
the whole number may now be classed as rare. In another place 
we intend further comment upon the threatened extinction of 
our songbirds. 

Under the head of reptiles we find to-day, although some are 
very rare, the following : The black or snapping turtle, and the 
mud turtle or musk tortoise ; also the painted, spotted, box and 
Blanding's box tortoise and the wood terrapin. 

Of snakes we have the common striped snake, the green or 
grass snake, ribbon snake, house or milk adder, field and swamp 
adder, the black snake, the red or brown wood snake, the ring- 
necked snake, black water snake and rattlesnake. Ring-necked, 
ribbon, and rattlesnake are now rare. The latter, the only pois- 
onous variety, was formerly common here. The writer knows 
of but one authenticated case of a rattler being killed within the 
city limits in the last twenty-five years, but it is said they still 
haunt the neighborhood of "The Pinnacle" and other rocky 
ledges in Hooksett. Until quite recently it was claimed they 
were killed there at the rate of about one per annum. Notwith- 
standing a wide spread, popular belief to the contrary, not one 
of the other snakes mentioned is poisonous. The black water- 
snake, still common in the Massabesic and other neighborhood 
ponds, and the cause of so much unreasoning terror, is entirely 
harmless, its bite being no more fatal than that of a pickerel, and 
finally they never bite anything but frogs. They can be easily 
caught by tying a live frog to a string and sinking it in the bay 
or inlet which they haunt ; said snake having swallowed the frog 
aforesaid may be pulled ashore, whereupon he will at once dis- 
gorge his prey. The released frog, like Jonah of old, sometimes 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. Jl 

escapes unhurt, perhaps to furnish food for another of these ter- 
rible freshwater sea-serpents. 

Under the head of fishes we can make only brief mention of 
the commoner sorts remaining. The salmon, shad, sturgeon, 
ale-wife and lamprey-eel will be considered later, observing here 
only that their great abundance in these waters led to an occu- 
pation and settlement much earlier than that usually assigned 
by historians. The rivers once abounded with the red roach or 
bearded chub, the white chub or dace, suckers, shiners, silver 
eels, etc., the lakes and ponds with pout, perch and pickerel, and 
the contributing streams hereabout were fairly alive with the 
speckled trout. More than forty years ago the writer caught 
the red roach in the rapids of the lower canal weirs, and great 
pickerel, weighing from six to seven pounds each, were in those 
days caught from the end of a short plank wharf on the Offutt 
shore of the Massabesic. Several alewife brooks run into this 
lake and in recent years large numbers of alewives have been 
taken from them in the annual spring runs. Their presence is 
an anomaly, and like land-locked salmon they must be referred 
to a time when the sea covered a large part of the state. Sixty 
years ago silver eels were so plentiful in the Massabesic that 
they were salted down by the barrel for winter use. To-day a 
native fish worth the catching in brook, lake or river is almost a 
curiosity. We still have a few fine trout streams, some of which 
have been restocked ; the removal of the timber, however, has 
so reduced their volume that we can never hope, even under 
"protection," that the brooks will again offer to anglers more 
than a shadow of the old-time sport. The lakes have also been 
stocked — with bass which no one wants, with wall-eyed salmon 
which no one can catch. Meantime lake, pond, river and brook 
grow less yearly and threaten by and by to dry up ; meanwhile 
the work of felling the woods along the water-courses and upon 
the sloping shores of lakes goes on, and people begin to wonder 
if our water-supply will fail, and why. Massachusetts has in the 



72 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

past come to us more than once for ice ; she now very strongly 
hints that she needs some of our water. While we desire to 
be very neighborly, it is just possible we shall soon have none to 
spare for either love or money. 

We seem to see in dim colonial vistas a scene like one painted 
upon the canvas of a dream. Hardy trappers and hunters roam 
the woods ; through the thick glades the crack of the flint-lock 
musket rouses the echoes, answered by the call of early-risen 
birds, the noise of waters, the trampling feet of beasts. Over 
the wooded plains sweeping to the Merrimack, following the 
paths of brooks and guided by the roar of river rapids, children 
ranged without fear through thickets far from the rude shelter 
of their homes. The smoke of the settler's fire had supplanted 
the smouldering heap of the Indian ; but for years every sense 
was alert to interpret the sounds borne in upon the air of night, 
to question each fresh trail through the dew of morning. A 
broken twig, a fall of moss, the crushing of a tuft of deer-grass 
— did these betray the heel of a foe or of a friend ? No strange 
noise escaped the settler's ear; startled, perchance, in the pur- 
suit of game by a sudden bruit and clamor, he leans to listen 
only to the far-away cry of the loon or the crescendo in the for- 
est where the partridge beats his drum. 



<?09tribu(:ioi)s 



TD THE 



JHistoryof Old Derryfield, 



BY WILLIAM ELLERY MOORE. 



PART FOURTH. 
PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



TO THE 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD, 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

INDIANS AND EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 



PRELIMINARY — THE NIPMUCKS — INDIAN HABITS AND RELICS — MARRIAGE 

AND MOTHERHOOD — PATRONYMICS — FAMOUS SQUAWS — SERMON ON 

FISH — TRANSITION PERIOD — OCCUPATION AND SETTLEMENT. 



BY WILLIAM E. MOORE. 



A PAPER READ BEFORE THE 



MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 



PART IV. 



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR. 



PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. 



Entered according to Act of Congress . 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, 

District of Columbia. 

1897. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO THE 

HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD 

BY WILLIAM E. MOORE. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 

The historian who attempts to draw aside the veil which has 
for centuries hidden the annals of an obscure people, scant in 
numbers, low in civilization, destitute even of a written tongue, 
has before him no easy task, and one rendered still more difficult 
from the fact that in his first contact with civilization the Indian 
was surrounded with white men who were themselves illiterate. 
Only after the passing of the tribe was the effort made to put 
into some sort of order the scattered records and traditions con- 
cerning them, and this was so scantily done that a single para- 
graph might set forth the story, as who should say : There 
were Indians ; there are no Indians. 

THE NIPMUCKS. 

There appears to be a general agreement that one or more 
tribes of Indians inhabited a belt of inland country in Massa- 
chusetts and southern New Hampshire, more or less removed 
from the sea, and that these were known as Nipmucks, signify- 
ing by a license of free translation, freshwater Indians. They 
seem to have been neither numerous nor warlike and probably 



j6 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

held a position of little importance among the stronger and more 
ambitious tribes surrounding them. It is quite certain they 
took no prominent part in the bloody drama of the French and 
Indian wars, since no Nipmuck name adorns nor deed disfigures 
the page ofhistory. It is said. that the tribe with which we are 
more immediately concerned was subject to the Penacooks ; and 
this is rendered more plausible from the fact that the headquar- 
ters of that tribe, generally made at Penacook, were sometimes 
transferred to Amoskeag, probably in the height of the fishing 
season, and in virtue of the right of the stronger. 

INDIAN HABITS AND RELICS. 

From evidence which appears conclusive we locate the head- 
quarters of the Nipmucks at or near Amoskeag Falls, a place 
famous for hunting and fishing. Hunting has become a thing 
of the past, though to this day the search is kept up for any stray 
fish which may have escaped the Nipmuck nets. The chief vil- 
lage, or more accurately the village of the chief, was situated on 
the hill-bluff known as ''The Willows," now owned by Ex-Gov. 
Frederick Smyth. In the steep banks of this bluff, and where 
the soil had been upturned, there was found a great number of 
broken fragments of rude pottery and other utensils used by the 
Indians. Nearly everything naturally grouped under the head 
of Indian relics has been found on the site of this village, includ- 
ing arrow and spear-heads in great variety, stone mortars and 
pestles, stone axes, gouges, clubs, and fish-knives, stone tools for 
removing fish-scales or scraping skins, bone fish-hooks, needles, 
hairpins, and numerous other relics, some broken, but many per- 
fectly preserved. When making an excavation on the premises, 
for the purpose of forming a small artificial pond, there was un- 
earthed a deposit of arrow and spearheads, knives, etc., of quartz, 
flint or chert, which with unfinished specimens and chipped frag- 
ments amounted in the whole to several bushels. This was 
probably one of the workshops or armories of the tribe, and un- 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 77 

doubtedly the first Amoskeag manufactory. Over the whole sec- 
tion surrounding the falls, on either side, in fact from Goffe's 
Falls to Martin's Ferry, a great number of the various relics 
above enumerated have been picked up, several valuable collec- 
tions having been made, perhaps the most interesting being that 
of the late Samuel B. Kidder. They were more numerous up- 
on the village-site referred to, on the elevation west of the P. C. 
Cheney Company's mills, as well as elsewhere and near by, on 
the large island below the falls and the level stretch of land im- 
mediately below the great eddy. At all these points, as well as 
in the bed of the river, valuable finds have rewarded the patient 
relic-hunter. At the mouth of Christian brook, known also in 
later times as the " fair-ground brook," and also at the mouth of 
Ray brook, there have been found many interesting relics. The 
bank of the river north of the latter stream is quite steep, and 
here about twenty years ago the writer found a nest of a dozen 
or more large chipped slate-stones, wholly unlike the convention- 
al spear-head, but yet of undoubted human workmanship, which 
had been probably used for cleaning fish. They were buried at 
a considerable depth, having been uncovered by a fall of earth 
occurring because of high water. There are signs of old fires, 
pieces of charred wood remaining at a depth of three or more 
feet. Throughout this entire section similar mementos have 
been discovered, especially on the sandy margins of lakes and 
ponds. A symmetrically chipped arrow-head of milk-quartz was 
found by the writer, when a mere boy, on the beach at Massa- 
besic Lake. 

The foregoing facts, even in the absence of other evidence, 
is ample to establish the presence of Indians here in considera- 
ble numbers and for a long period, probably centuries before the 
advent of the whites: Tradition assigns no spot which we can 
point out as an Indian burial place. It is said there are several 
Indian graves near the entrance from the highway to the Devil's 
Den in Chester. It is also said and has long been currently 
believed that the site of a number of wigwams was upon Brown's 



yS CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

Island in the Massabesic, and this is altogether likely. The sole 
indication of a burial place in this immediate vicinity, which has 
come to our knowledge, was the finding of human bones sup- 
posed to be those of Indians, in the grading of Penacook street, 
about 1875. 

The only approach to a permanent settlement was that around 
the home of the chief. More than forty wigwams were scattered 
over this picturesque knoll, a fine view of the Merrimack being 
afforded from the willow palisades surrounding the village. It 
is quite certain that numerous temporary wigwams were erected 
at or near the more important points above mentioned, on both 
sides of the Merrimack, some of which may have been perman- 
ent. From the well-known roving character of the Indian it is 
likely that in the summer months at least they grew like the 
mushroom in a single night and as soon vanished. 

The traditional, dark-red, fawn-like Indian maiden was not of 
the Nipmucks. She is the creation of a diluted sentimentality, 
a mere dream of a class of poets too lazy to saw wood but able 
to invent aboriginallies by the gross. The bewitching squaw 
who leaped for love from the top of Rock Rimmon was not after 
mayflowers ; it is much more likely that she was overloaded with 
muskrats and lost her way. The noble Nipmuck lover was also 
an invention, patented by Cooper. If these romantic t)pes ever 
existed it was before the era of discovery. In contact with the 
white man the Indian adopted only his vices ; these, superadded 
to savage traits, could not well produce heroes either in love or 
war. We have ransacked the records of the past, turned to the 
testimony of the dead, and listened to the lies of the living, but 
have failed utterly to discover proof of greatness, or even the 
dawn of a progressive and civilizing instinct among either the 
Nipmucks or Penacooks. 

The red man was fond of fishing and hunting, but he killed 
solely to obtain food, clothing, or materials to give him shelter, 
and was not ennobled by the zest of sportsmanship. In him the 
instinct of self-preservation scarcely rose above the level of the 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 79 

wild beasts he slew. Our people, however, seem to have a weak- 
ness for idols of all colors and stand ready to bow down and 
serve them. All that is needed is a remote historical episode, 
recounted by a white Ananias, and an ideal Pocahontas appears. 
But we soon tire of the old favorites, and one by one the saints, 
martyrs and heroes of history are knocked off their perch. His- 
tories are no longer tales agreed upon, but begin to be viewed 
with suspicion. William Tell is a myth, the Scottish Mary was 
freckled, even King Richard was not a hunchback, and George 
Washington swore. Soon shall the frivolous generations pass, 
and as they die will fade the memory of men once deemed im- 
mortal. Philip, Tecumseh, Logan, Oceola and Passaconaway 
have vanished, to be followed by the red drunkard of the reser- 
vation. 

With as little success we have sought for an aesthetic trait in 
the Nipmuck character, or for some evidence of a moral sense. 
Surrounded upon the one hand with beauty and upon the other 
by terrifying aspects of nature, he was blind to the one and by 
the other affrighted. A seen enemy he attacked and tried to 
kill ; before an unknown danger he cowered and prayed, his so- 
called acts of worship inspired alone by ignorance and fear. 

About him grew myriads of flowering plants and shrubs, in 
dell or defile, glade or glen, in the natural meadows and over the 
upland slopes, terraces and plateaus. When following the chase 
or crouching in wait for game the moccasined foot could scarce- 
ly fall without crushing a blossom. Here the wind-flower and 
the blue and yellow violet grew, the laurel and the flower de 
luce ; the blue closed gentian and its white-fingered sister, and 
the great fringed orchis. These do not detain the hunter. He 
hears not the oration of Jack-in-the-Pulpit ; the wild rose spreads 
its bloom to him who hastens. To such a woodsman the scarlet 
robe of the cardinal-flower has no meaning, the sweet-brier no 
fragrance, the queen of the meadow no style. The red scalp or 
flaming coat of tanager or wood-tapper may allure him, but the 



80 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

rare blush of Arethusa he passes with indifference. Concerning 
the world of plant life his thought is, if he has one, Can I eat it, 
or will it cure snake-bite ? The wild deer for which he waits 
will reason as acutely. 

The hues of the sky at sunset may suggest to the Indian rain 
or drowth, but never beauty ; and as he looks from his hemlock 
bed to the crimson light of dawn upon the western summits, in 
his breast no emotion kindles, as with gutteral accent he says, 
This is another day. To a meteor he gives a grunt, to a comet 
two ; and when the Northern Lights begin to flash and in the 
intermittent gleam the stars grow pale, he sees only a reflection 
from the campfires of a mightier race of hunters in the far and 
frozen north. 

The wants of the Nipmuck did not make him unhappy, though , 
in this very evil case we find the civilized citizen of to-day. The 
savage saw neither virtue or sweetness in a useless plant ; the 
average society atom sees no sweetness in character or loveliness 
in life without a bank-account. We wish to be just — even to 
an Indian. 

The agriculture of the Nipmuck was of a rude sort, the rich 
soil of natural meadows or intervales being usually selected as 
planting places, and when these were not available other tracts 
were reclaimed by fire and the larger trees killed by the process 
of girdling. The preparation of the ground, planting, hoeing 
and harvesting — nearly everything coming under the head of 
work — was performed by women and children. The men were 
kind enough to furnish the raw material for the manufacture of 
tools, such as the axe, the stone or clam-shell hoe and other cut- 
ting implements, his own time being otherwise fully occupied 
in making arms and equipments for the hunt and allied mascu- 
line occupations. So that numerous avenues of employment 
remained open to the gentler sex, and we are beginning to recog- 
nize in our time the wisdom of this arrangement. We now per- 
mit our wives and mothers, but more especially the larger class 
of sisters, cousins and aunts, to whom these relations of life are 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 8 1 

closed, or which have been declined with thanks, to assume some 
portion of our burdens, at a reduced rate of compensation. 

The range of cultivated food-products was generally limited 
to corn, squashes, pumpkins, melons and kidney-beans. They 
derived, however, a large part of their winter food-supply from 
nuts, sweet acorns, dried fish, smoked meats, etc., prepared in 
various unpalatable ways, but capable of supporting life. There 
were no seasons throughout the year when fresh flesh food, of 
fish, fowl or animal, could not be had in abundance, and if there 
were times of scarcity the cause usually proceeded from indo- 
lence or improvidence. 

We are unable to give the Nipmuck name of the Indian after- 
wards known as Christian or Christo. This name is said to have 
been bestowed upon him soon after his conversion to Christian- 
ity by the Apostle Eliot, but this lacks probability. It is much 
more likely that he had it from the Jesuits, or assumed it for pur- 
poses of his own. Like St. Paul he was at times all things to 
all men — a Nipmuck, an Arosagunticook ; a Puritan, a convert 
to Catholicism. Christo is first heard of in company with a St. 
Francis Indian called Plausawa, a not very good pronunciation 
of Francois. They had sufficient intercourse with the settlers 
to ascertain that white christians made slaves of black men, 
and that the profits of the trade were large. Acting upon this 
hint they stole two negroes in Canterbury and started with them 
for Canada, one escaping upon the way and the other being sold 
to a French officer. Christo seems to have had seasons of back- 
sliding and repentance, such as the praying Indians generally 
enjoyed, and after a series of apochryphal adventures he settled 
at Amoskeag. His cabin or hut was near the mouth of Chris- 
tian brook, which entered the Merrimack immediately west of 
the Amoskeag Paper Mills. Here he lived in an outward show 
of peace for some years, professing friendship for the whites, 
by whom he was distrusted. At length he was suspected of 
conveying intelligence and giving secret aid to the hostile St. 
Francis or Arosagunticook Indians, whereupon, during his ab- 



82 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

sence they confiscated his personal belongings and burned his 
cabin. Potter says that Christo subsequently returned and for- 
gave the whites for this cruel injury. Other accounts, more in 
consonance with the Indian character, say that he openly joined 
the Arosagunticooks and became an active and implacable foe. 
This little trout-stream is now hidden beneath the surface by 
the march of improvement, for nearly a mile of its course, and 
the generation to come will know neither name nor place. 

Plausawa had also been an occasional visitor at Amoskeag, 
accompanied by another drunken brave called Sabbatis, a name 
representing his baptism into Christianity, literally St. Baptiste. 
These Indian thieves and murderers, after the commission of a 
series of outrages in Canterbury, Salisbury and Warren, as well 
as in this neighborhood, were finally killed in Boscawen by one 
Peter Bowen. The full details of this affair are given in' Little's 
History of Warren. 

Upon the authority of certain early historians we are asked to 
believe that upon the death of the great chief of the Micmacs 
or Taratines, a powerful and warlike tribe in the Province of 
Maine, to whom the Penacooks were subject, a war of succes- 
sion arose, which resulted in the choice of Passaconaway to 
succeed the dead Bashaba, who had been slain in battle. This 
war for supremacy became general and involved all the tribes 
from New Brunswick to the Hudson river and from Massachu- 
setts to Canada. The exact limits were not known and proba- 
bly can never be determined. The numbers engaged were large, 
the war continued for years ; it is said to have been conducted 
with great ferocity and to have been especially disastrous to the 
coast tribes, who were no match for the hardy inland hunters. 
Many of the names preserved to us are those of chiefs and war- 
riors who had become famous in this great war, which* was the 
most sanguinary and relentless ever waged among the Indians 
of the east. The great plague, to which nearly all the earlier 
accounts refer, raged among the Nipmucks towards the close of 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 83 

this war. The origin of this plague has never been satisfactorily 
accounted for, or its nature clearly understood, but we hazard a 
conjecture that the contagion was communicated by the Indians 
of New France, who in turn received it from the whites then in 
Canada in considerable numbers. At all events it was believed 
the loss by battle and plague literally decimated the ranks of the 
savages and brought the war to a close before the landing of the 
Pilgrims at Plymouth. The early accounts must be received 
with great caution, ample allowance made for the time in which 
they were written, and due regard had to the sources of inform- 
ation. " Broken English " is scarcely a fit vehicle for the trans- 
mission of historical data. The skeletons of those who fell in 
savage strife, or succumbed to plague and famine four centuries 
ago, might as easily be clothed with life as could the details of 
that distant scene be dug from their oblivion. 

Upon this middle ground, between the Plymouth Puritan and 
the pioneer Jesuit of New France, there was another curious en- 
counter, an episode in the struggle between two forces, whose 
declaration of war ante-dated the discovery of America. When- 
ever and wherever these met, in the long centuries, the hostile 
lines were drawn. And so it came to pass that in a new world, 
for the soil of which kings contended, the adherents of Pope and 
Prostestant, in savage bands, the one inspired by a Mather, che 
other by a Marquette, each in the name of a common Redeemer, 
stood opposed in conflict. Thus, upon the virgin soil of New 
Hampshire, in that first century of its occupation, was shed the 
blood of religious hatred. Time has fortunately softened these 
asperities, and in the new dawn of a wiser christian charity we 
seem to see the promise of brotherhood and reconciliation. 

As the light of the fire-fly is illusive or intermittent, so Indian 
lore and tradition lead us along a pathway sometimes overcast 
with darkness and often difficult to follow. The time is distant, 
the actors are detunct, and the record is becoming more indis- 



84 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

tinct and uncertain. But we still follow the trail with ardor in 
an endeavor to enrich our barren annals, and we know that we 
are on the ground. Some may even thank us for this attempt 
to restore these fast-fading pictures of the past. 



MARRIAGE AND MOTHERHOOD. 

It is not certain that the Nipmucks were polygamous, but the 
line was not far removed. They seldom lived with more than one 
squaw at the same time, but on the other hand a healthy brave 
generally contrived to marry from six to nine maidens during an 
average life of four-score and ten years. The squaw was wedded 
when quite young, frequently at twelve years of age ; but con- 
stant drudgery and exposure broke them down early, so that at 
thirty they became prematurely old and were wrinkled at forty. 
They endeavored for a time to keep up appearances, just as we 
observe the old hens of our generation in their efforts to parade 
with spring chickens. It made little difference to the mother, 
and none whatever to the pappoose, whether the medicine-man 
was called in or not. When his services were invoked he com- 
monly made a great pow-wow in front of the wickyup before en- 
tering, and more pow-wow upon emerging, concluding with an 
invocation or chant addressed apparently to the great Square of 
Pegasus. In order that the old wife might be supplanted by the 
new, separation was made easy, and the discarded wife and moth- 
er did not complain, afterwards contenting herself with adopting 
some captive as a son or husband, as the case might be. Some 
of these captives, thus summarily wedded without ceremony or 
consent, were white men, and part first of the very pathetic story 
of Pocahontas rests solely upon this custom. 

We have purposely omitted the disgusting details of home-life, 
suggesting merely that an ample water-supply was not dimin- 
ished or contaminated, as the Nipmuck squaw never took a bath 
or any other step toward cleanliness. 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 85 



INDIAN PATRONYMICS. 

We have so long been familiar with the names of the neigh- 
mountains, streams and lakes that we seldom pause to inquire 
concerning their godfathers, and in many cases have not even 
suspected their Nipmuck origin. As will have been observed, 
the names of most of our larger rives, lakes and highlands are 
purely Indian ; the Merrimack, Piscataquog, Souhegan, Nashua, 
Cohas, Soucook, Suncook and Contoocook ; the Baboosic and 
Massabesic, Pawtuckaway and the Uncanoonucks — supply us 
with instances. The manner of spelling these various names 
has from time to time been curiously varied, while their pronun- 
ciation has been no less capricious. The examples heretofore 
given, however, may from long usage be now regarded as settled. 

The etymology of Indian names offers an attractive field for 
study, and if many are involved in obscurity it only adds zest to 
the chase. The scope of our contributions will not permit us 
to enter upon this department of inquiry, and it is relegated to 
experts in barbarous philology. We have observed that the 
modern author appears over-anxious to disagree with writers 
who have preceded him. Each latest-adopted history or school 
atlas requires the student to commit to memory a new set of 
names of persons, places and things never before heard of, and 
should he attempt in after years to repeat these his own children 
will laugh at him. 

As to the survival of certain names to the exclusion of others 
we have been impressed by its significance ; the law of euphony 
undoubtedly plays a part, but the reason must rest upon deeper 
principles. The sight of certain names appeals to the ear like 
strains of music ; but they also evoke pictures to the eye, as if 
the name was the ghost of its owner, while we seem to see the 
shifting scenes summoned by these memories of sound. 

Passaconaway is certainly the most striking figure among our 
native chiefs, and all accounts agree in assigning to him the 



86 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

highest place in war or peace. We pass in silence the old-wives 
tales concerning him, his superhuman strength, his miraculous 
cures, his astounding feats of divination, nor shall we add anoth- 
er to the list of seven dying speeches reported by as many sober 
histories. The authentic record is brief, his fame rests largely 
upon tradition, but that by his people he was esteemed great 
is the highest praise that can be accorded. He was born about 
1540 and was an old man when the Pilgrims landed. His old 
age was passed in poverty ; once lord of thousands of acres, he 
was compelled to beg the poor privilege of living upon a patch 
of intervale and two little islands in the Merrimack. Even these 
were taken from him by the puritan rulers of the godly Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts. But the title-deeds to his vast 
possessions, wrung from him by white cunning, served to enrich 
the state, assisted in the spread of the gospel, and erected the 
cradle of liberty. 

It is known that Passaconaway had four sons and two daugh- 
ters ; of the sons Wonolancet alone became famous in his time, 
and the Appalachian Club has given his name to a small moun- 
tain of the Sandwich range, which nestles like a pappoose under 
the towering shoulders of his sire. 

When the first white hunter or trapper actually settled at the 
falls of Amoskeag, Acteon was one hundred years old and was 
alive twenty years afterwards ; in 1726 he was known as "Old 
Acteon." The terrible Pehaungun, " Beware of Me," was killed 
in a drunken frolic in 1732. He was then one hundred and 
twenty-four years old, and in his youth no white man had stepped 
upon the soil of Derryfield. It will serve but little purpose to 
recount a further list of long-forgotten names, to which nothing 
authentic can be added. Acteon has gone to the home of the 
Coosucks, Wahowa lives only in the classic yell of Dartmouth ; 
Watannumon rests by the Mikaseota, the bones of Paugus lie 
hidden in the white sands of Ossipee, and Passaconaway sleeps. 

Forty years ago a worn-out locomotive of the Northern Rail- 
way was sent to the junk-shop. Emblazoned letters upon the 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 8? 

cab spelled the word "Tahanto." But this evokes no memories 
— it is a name but it is no more, and may as well be that of a 
cloud at midnight. The roar of iron and the rush of steam have 
supplanted the war-cry of the savage, but to-day the path of the 
shining steel follows northward the ancient trail to the home of 
the Arosagunticooks. 

FAMOUS SQUAWS. 

It is not from choice that we have spoken slightingly of the 
Nipmuck squaw. She may have filled her place, and there is no 
doubt that wherever her home it was humble. But she must be 
put without prejudice in the column of silent factors — passing 
away without sign. Record, journal, memoir, narrative or his- 
tory, shed little lustre upon her life or character ; fiction and 
poetry have alone befriended her. The eldest daughter of Pas- 
saconaway, by her marriage with the great Nobhow, became a 
queen, but not even her name survives. Her younger sister, 
the fair Wetamoo, became the bride of a seven-syllabled son of 
Paugus and has been apotheosized in Whittier's verse. The 
wedded life of Wetamoo was not a happy one ; the youthful pair 
soon separated and she went back to the paternal tie-up in Der- 
ryfield, where she held court for many years as a grass-widow. 
These are the facts — the rest is fancy. 

After all, it is but a step from the dawn of tradition to our 
own times ; with a stroke ot the pen, the turning of a leaf, we 
pass to the century of base ball and cotton batting. 



CHAPTER IX. 

A SERMON ON FISH — THE TRANSITION PERIOD — EARLY OCCUPATION AND 

SETTLEMENT. 

All narrators recount the same fish-stories about the falls of 
Amoskeag. Great salmon and salmon-trout, shad, and even the 
sturgeon were plentiful, while ale-wives and lamprey-eels were 
so numerous as to impede navigation. Probably the most com- 
plete account of the manner of taking these fish is found in Pot- 
ter's History of Manchester. 

Early in the last century there was printed a curious sermon, 
the title-page of which is as follows : " Business and Diversion 
inoffensive to God, and necessary for the Comfort and Support 
of human Society. A Discourse utter'd in Part at Ammauskeeg- 
Falls, in the Fishing-Season. 1739. * * * Boston, Printed for 
S. Kneeland and T. Green in Queen-Street. Mdccxlih." 

The very quaint dedication is as follows : " To the Honora- 
ble Theodore Atkinson, Esq ; and Others the Worthy Patrons of 
the Fishing at Ammauskeeg. Gentlemen, It's not to signify to 
others that I pretend to an Intimacy with you or that I ever had 
a Share in those pleasant Diversions, which you have innocently 
indulged yourselves in, at the place where I have taken an an- 
nual Tour for some Years past. Yet I doubt not you'l Patronize 
my Intention, which is to sence against Bigottry and Supersti- 
tion. All Excess I disclaim, but pretend to be a Favorer of 
Religion, and of Labour as an Ingredient, and of Recreation as 
a necessary Attendant. I believe the Gentlemen who moved 
me to preach there in some odd Circumstances, and those at 
whose Desire and Charge this Discourse is Printed, (asking 
their Pardon if my Suggestion appear to them ungrounded ) were 
moved more from the uncommonness of the Thing, than any 
Thing singular in it. I have put off the Importunity for near 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 89 

these three years ; but least it should be, that I fear, it's being 
seen by the World, I submit it to sight and Censure. So little 
as I know you, Gentlemen, I heartily present it to you ; tho' all 
the Reason that I intend to offer is, that we have fished upon 
the same Banks. And tho' I know this will be no Bait, I am 
fond of being esteemed, in the Affairs of Fishing. Gentlemen, 
your most Obedient and very humble Servant. Fluviatulis 
Piscator." 

This sermon was by the Rev. Joseph Secombe, a minister of 
Kingston, New Hampshire, and was delivered before a mixed 
assemblage of hunters, trappers, fishermen, settlers and Indians. 
From the tone of the dedication it is evident that among his 
hearers were a number of civil or military officers in the service 
of King George the Second, together with other " gentry-folk," 
from Portsmouth, Ancient Dover, and Exeter. The "some odd 
Circumstances" alluded to probtbly had reference to preaching 
in the open air, perhaps to the mixed quality of the congrega- 
tion. The most significant statement, however, is that to these 
fishing-grounds he had "taken an annual Tour for some Years," 
and that the distinguished company, the Gentlemen of the ded- 
ication, had "fished upon the same Banks." This very clearly 
shows that the Amoskeag fisheries were not only known consid- 
erably earlier than the spring of 1739, but that the sport afforded 
was more enticing than that offered at " Great Salmon Falls " in 
Somersworth or the falls of the Cocheco at Dover. Otherwise 
we should not hear of annual tours to Amoskeag, made by con- 
siderable parties, involving a journey of from thirty-five to forty 
miles through the wilderness. We shall be prepared to show 
in another place that the reputation of Amoskeag as a great 
hunting and fishing place was known to white men for much more 
than a hundred years before Secombe's sermon was delivered. 

Our preacher chose his text from John 21-3, "Simon Peter 
saith unto them, I go a Fishing." The discourse sets forth that 
the Apostles were fishers, and that " fishing is innocent as Busi- 
8 



90 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

ness or Diversion " ; 'that " in fishing we are so far from delight- 
ing to see our Fellow-Creature die, that we hardly think whether 
they live. We have no more of a murderous Tho't in taking 
them, than in cutting up a Mess of Herbage." That God " has 
implanted in several Sorts of Fish, a strong Instinct to swim up 
these Rivers a vast Distance from the Sea. And is it not re- 
markable, that Rivers most incumbered with Falls, are ever 
more full of Fish than others. Why are they Directed here ?" 
The preacher concludes from his ingenious reasoning that, "If 
they may be taken, any may make a Business of taking them 
for the Supply of others," and adds, " If I may eat them for Re- 
freshment, I may as well catch them, if this recreate and refresh 
me. It's as lawful to delight the Eye, as the Palate." 

The bulk and balance of the discourse is in the approved or- 
thodox style of that age, with frequent reference to scripture 
texts, citations from the church fathers, Latin quotations, etc. 
The whole sermon seems to have been inspired by its romantic 
surroundings, and to be addressed not so much to unconverted 
men but more to a fellow-feeling of sportmanship in the minds 
of his hearers. While the way was pointed to godly living, the 
pleasant invitation of foaming waters held fast his fancy, and in 
the sunlight the glint of leaping salmon made a present heaven 
stronger to allure than the pictured joys of a new but remote 
Jerusalem. 

Twenty-odd years ago certain enthusiastic citizens so exerted 
themselves as to move heaven and earth and the legislature, out 
of which agitation a fish-way was built at Amoskeag, to enable 
salmon and other fish so inclined to pass up to the headwaters, 
to deposit their spawn at their leisure and return unmolested to 
the sea. Time and money were expended, the fish protected by 
law, and everything was in readiness to revive the old time sport 
except the salmon and Massachusetts. It was said the fish-ways 
at Lowell and Lawrence were constructed, either in ignorance 
or by design, to prevent the passage of fish. Finally, after long 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 91 

waiting, a few stray salmon, accompanied by a small colony of 
eels, actually made their way to the foot of Amoskeag falls and 
possibly some passed up the fish-way. Great things were hoped 
but never realized ; each spring the number grew less, and in a 
few years entirely ceased. The fish-way is falling to pieces with 
rot, the fish commissioners of two great states catch nothing but 
their salary, and the dream is over. The real difficulty, however, 
was not so much in the way as in the water; this had become 
so contaminated by the wash and refuse of mills and the sewer- 
age of cities that fish would not enter a stream loaded with saw- 
dust, colored with dye-stuffs, and flavored with extract of gar- 
bage and gas-works. As with felled forests game-animals and 
birds have departed, so from our polluted streams the noble sal- 
mon has disappeared ; and these are among the sorry penalties 
exacted in exchange for calico and gingham. 

THE TRANSITION PERIOD. 

Not the least curious and interesting portion of the early his- 
tory of Derryfield is the transition period — that stretch of time 
during which the white man appeared while the Indian had not 
yet departed. For the sole purpose of setting forth in orderly 
sequence the procession of events leading to permanent settle- 
ments in North America, we introduce the following dates as 
landmarks : The Cabots, under Henry VII, in 1497, seventeen 
months before Columbus touched the mainland of America ; 
Verazzano, 1524; Cartier, 1534. This is undoubtedly the date 
of the first but not of the first permanent settlement. But the 
fisheries at Newfoundland had in the meantime become known. 
Parkman says there is strong evidence that the trade began as 
early as 1504, and it is well established that in 15 17 Spanish, 
French and Portuguese vessels were engaged in it ; he adds that 
from 1527 the Newfoundland fishery was never abandoned. In 
1578 more than three hundred and fifty vessels visited the banks, 
and in 1607 there was an old French fisherman at Canseau who 



92 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

had sailed thither for forty-two successive years. We pass rap- 
idly to De Monts, at Nova Scotia in 1604, wintering with the 
colony at St. Croix. During that year he wrote from the banks 
of the St. Lawrence, "The Indians tell us of a beautiful river 
far to the south, which they call the Merrimack." The dream 
of this river haunted him, and in 1605 he accompanied Cham- 
plain on a voyage of discovery southward along the coast. In 
that year we find him at the Isles of Shoals and Portsmouth har- 
bor. Passing down the coast they discovered the Merrimack, 
which Champlain named "La Riviere du Gas," (duGuast) in 
honor of De Monts. In 161 1 the Jesuits came, to rescue the 
perishing souls of the natives, and incidentally to become pro- 
prietors of "the greater part of the future United States and 
British Provinces." To quote the text of Parkman, "On the 
banks of James River was a nest of woe-begone Englishmen, a 
handful of Dutch fur-traders at the mouth of the Hudson, and 
a few shivering Frenchmen among the snow-drifts of Arcadia; 
while deep within the wild monotony of desolation, on the icy 
verge of the great northern river, the hand of Champlain upheld 
the fleur-de-lis on the rock of Quebec." 

In this brief recount of years we have almost unconsciously 
drawn the lines of a historical triangulation, with New Hamp- 
shire at the centre. The converging lines, in the years imme- 
diately following, drew toward us from three cardinal points — 
south, east, and north. Nearly a full quarter-century elapsed 
between the earliest white settlements at Quebec and Montreal 
and that of the Plymouth colony in [620; this was separated by 
thirteen years from the date of the Popham Colony at the mouth 
of the Kennebec, in 1607, while the Piscataqua settlement in 
1623 closely followed that at Plymouth. The whole time em- 
braced between 1600 and 1750 —a round century and a half — 
constituted this great transition period from barbarity to civili- 
zation. It is the task of the careful student of the past to illus- 
trate the striking details, at on«e picturesque and shameless, of 
this border land of American history. 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 93 

OCCUPATION AND SETTLEMENT. 

In the century preceding the first settlement upon the soil of 
New Hampshire numerous attempts at colonization had met 
with failure, and it will have been seen that the first permanent 
settlements, made respectively by the French, Dutch and Eng- 
lish, were nearly contemporaneous. It is definitely known that 
there were not less than four great through Indian trails leading 
from points upon the coast to the country of the St. Lawrence. 
One of these was from Portsmouth up the Salmon Falls valley, 
passing to the east of Winnepesauke, west of Ossipee, and so 
northerly through the Pequauket region, leaving the White 
Hills to the left. This was the line of subsequent white exten- 
sion from Exeter and Dover. The great Nipmuck trail followed 
the Merrimack, Pemigewasset and Baker River valleys, passing 
Moosilauke on the right, over Warren summit, and thence up the 
valley of the Connecticut. This was likewise the line followed 
by the stream of settlement from Massachusetts. These con- 
spicuous routes, if they did not coalesque, were joined here and 
there by cross-country trails, one of these being from Ancient 
Dover, through old Chester to Amoskeag, to which further ref- 
erence will be made. 

These old Indian ways were probably first trodden by the feet 
of French explorers, nearly if not quite three centuries ago, 
accompanied by Indian guides from Quebec, and their footsteps 
were followed northward a few years later by the English. The 
Pilgrim father played the double role of Puritan and pioneer ; 
while austere and saintly, he was adventurous and daring. The 
wilderness had no terrors and the sea no dangers to deter the 
hearts of oak who in the wake of the Ma\ flower settlers every- 
where pushed on beyond the Plymouth homesteads. Without 
guide or compass they followed the fertile valleys ranging to the 
north, camping only when arrested by the gloom of night. Be- 
side the flowing waters each hunter halted where he wished and 
chose his home. 



94 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

There was another and darker side to the Puritan character. 
He was not only selfish but greedy ; compelled to be prudent, 
he became stingy. In a trade with his neighbor he stretched 
the tenth commandment and for the time being forgot the other 
nine. It was small wonder that the rights of savages weighed 
little in the presence of his wants, which he persuaded himself 
were necessities. It soon came to pass that bloody reprisals 
followed Indian cruelty and outrage, the sole answer which a 
barbarous people could make to civilized treachery. The wasp 
did not sting until the nest was ravaged ; smarting with pain, in 
hot revenge the spoiler trampled to death those whom he him- 
self had driven to madness and revolt. 

In a review of the first contact of the whites with the Indians, 
and by an impartial consensus of the records, the whole story of 
that contact, with scarcely an exception, is dishonorable to the 
whites. Bad faith and broken promises, advantage gained by 
guile and dishonest diplomacy, were followed by encroachment 
and dispossession. Through the centuries which have inter- 
vened our children have been taught to revere the rugged vir- 
tues of their Puritan ancestors ; poetry and romance, even the 
historic page, has surrounded them with a shining aureola of 
sanctity, but in this era of research and impartial scholarship an 
awakened national conscience sees them beneath the deceitful 
glamour of distance clothed upon with the old frailties of human- 
ity. Again we witness the old paradox of saint and sinner ; the 
one erects a church, but for convenience of the other " the devil 
builds a chapel hardby." 

Without a single exception, so far as disclosed by the record, 
every permanent settlement in New Hampshire was preceded 
by an actual or quasi-occupation. This took various forms ; the 
territory afterwards formed into townships was early overrun 
with hunters, trappers, fishers, adventurers of all sorts ; some of 
these were employed by French companies in Canada, some by 
the Dutch traders of New Netherland. Others came from the 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 



95 



Massachusetts colony,, and many from the settlements at Ports- 
mouth or Dover. The wilderness was threaded with lines of 
traps, running to and from depots of supplies, while to provide 
necessary storage for fur or other commodities bark-cabins and 
log-houses were built here and there at points of convenience. 
With the arrival of each vessel from the old world, there came 
an accession of rough and turbulent spirits, many with nothing 
to lose and all inspired by the hope of gain. Fabulous stories 
of wealth and exaggerated accounts of mineral treasures found 
ready acceptance, and the decks of vessels clearing for New 
England were crowded with saints and swash-bucklers, dissen- 
ters and desperadoes. To these, indiscriminately, some of our 
genealogical cranks are crazy to trace their ancestry. 

Along all the avenues of exploration, on sea or land, by way 
of lake or river, the wilderness was traversed ; some merely in- 
spired by the strong lust of adventure, some inflamed by the 
thirst for gold, others more soberly in search of homes. Out of 
these early exploitations came the first definite information of 
the character and topography of New England. Toiling through 
dense forests, the sudden sight of a mountain was as welcome as 
the first glimpse of land to the mariner, and afforded a landmark 
to direct his steps. One by one these great natural boundary 
marks were at least approximately located, lakes were plotted, 
and the course of rivers roughly indicated, sketched perhaps up- 
on birch-bark maps with pencils of coal. Sometimes accompan- 
ied by friendly Indian guides, familiar with the territory, the 
way was made easier; here a mountain or height of land, there 
a swamp or thicket was avoided ; here he was led past a broad 
lake or conducted to river shallows where the stream offered a 
fording place. One by one names were given to mountains, 
rivers and lakes, or other natural features, and it is one of the 
astonishing facts of the time that these early pioneers gener- 
ally accepted without question the names given by the Indians, 
and that so many of these survive. 



g6 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

It is somewhat difficult for us to understand and appreciate the 
tremendous difficulties to be overcome, the hardship and priva- 
tion encountered, and the resolute courage required to face the 
clangers that beset the first settlers, even in times of peace. The 
mere exhibition of physical strength and endurance almost sur- 
passes belief. Aside from the inseparable musket and hunting- 
knife, powder-horn and shot, an axe or hatchet was always a part 
of the outfit ; to these was frequently added a pack of blankets, 
a pot or frying-pan, and other utensils and tools, the combined 
weight of which was often fifty or more pounds. In summer 
the pack was sometimes slung on poles, between two sets of 
stalwart shoulders, or in winter drawn upon sledges, and the 
varied yield of the chase or the treasures of traps were trans- 
ported in like manner. 

Further evidence of this early occupation and settlement will 
be considered in the next and concluding part of the series, to 
which will be added some sketches of home-life, churches and 
schools, the whole to conclude with an account of the rise, de- 
cline and fall of the Derryfield Social Library. These contribu- 
tions will not at present bring the record of events later than 
the first quarter of the present century. 



^09tribiJtioi>s 



TD THE 



JHistoryof Old Derryfield, 



BY WILLIAM ELLERY MOORE. 



PART FIFTH. 
PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



TO THE 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD, 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

OCCUPATION AND SETTLEMENTS. 



EARLY OCCUPATION AND FIRST SETTLEMENTS CONTINUED — HOME LIFE- 
CHURCHES, SCHOOLS, ETC. — THE DEKRYFIELD SOCIAL LIBRARY — 
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION. 



BY WILLIAM E. MOORE. 



A PAPER READ BEFORE THE 



MANCHESTER HISTORIC ASSOCIATION. 



PART V. 



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR. 



PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. 



Entered according to Act of Congress 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, 

District of Columbia. 

1897. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO THE 

HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD 

BY WILLIAM E. MOORE. 



CHAPTER X. 

EARLY OCCUPATION AND SETTLEMENT CONCLUDED. 

In the preceding chapter the attempt was made to present a 
long-distance view of the times preceding and immediately fol- 
lowing the first permanent settlements in New England. Con- 
tinuing the inquiry it will be our endeavor to ascertain and set 
forth in order the dates of the first authorized expeditions into 
New Hampshire. 

The first patent granted by the London Company to the May- 
flower Pilgrims was applied for in 1617 and granted in 16 19. 
Landing and luncheon over, like cats in strange garrets, these 
colonists sent out exploring parties in every direction, and were 
not long in discovering the Merrimack, which they approached 
in the neighborhood of Haverhill, the course of the river at that 
point being nearly due east. Disregarding an earlier patent of 
1606, under which some abortive attempts at colonization took 
place, we come next to the Gorges and Mason patent of 1620, 
superseded in 1621 by what was then known as the " Mariana" 
grant. It is only necessary for our purpose to remember that 
the grantors were so ignorant of the territory granted that they 
had supposed the east and west course of the Merrimack contin- 
ued to its source, which was thought to be Lake Champlain. In 



lOO CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

1622, however, another patent to Gorges and Mason conveyed 
what was known as the Laconia grant, including land "situated 
between the Rivers of Merrimack and Sagadehock, extending 
back to the great lakes and rivers of Canada." Under this last 
grant settlements were simultaneously made at Portsmouth and 
Dover Neck, in the spring of 1623. In March, 1627, a grant to 
Henry Roswell conveyed "the territory between a line running 
from the Atlantic ocean three miles south of the mouth of the 
Charles River, and every part thereof, and a line extending from 
the Atlantic ocean, three miles north of the Merrimack river and 
every part thereof." How far inland this great paralellogram 
extended from the sea no one knew, and at that time no one be- 
lieved, not even the grantees, that the northern limit extended 
more than three miles beyond an east and west line projected 
from Newburyport to Haverhill. The last fatal misconception 
was the source of much subsequent trouble and disagreement, 
the last echo of which did not die for two hundred and seventy 
years, when the boundary line between New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts was finally and definitely agreed upon — in favor 
of Massachusetts. 

Up to this time every grant and patent, and all the territory 
held or claimed to be held under them, as well as every occupa- 
tion and settlement, were made in entire disregard of the right 
or ownership of the Indians to any of the territory in question. 
In the spring of 1629, however, the famous Wheelwright deed 
was executed by Passaconaway and three other owners of the 
soil in fee simple, conveying an extensive tract of land for a con- 
consideration of ten or twelve pounds in lawful money. This 
deed was subsequently pronounced a forgery, but no sufficient 
proof has been produced to show that it was not a genuine con- 
veyance. Our interest in the question is mainly historical and 
especially in the local trend of the northerly line, described in 
the instrument as passing through the present towns of Straf- 
ford, Northwood, Deerfield, Candia, Hooksett and Manchester, 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. IOI 

thus covering the whole of our title to Derryfield and the lands 
immediately adjoining. It is of further interest to remember 
that the identical territory thus acquired by purchase under this 
deed was afterwards, in November of the same year, granted to 
Mason by the " Council of Plymouth," at his request. No con- 
sideration was mentioned, but the obvious inference is, in the 
light of all the known subsequent facts, that this new grant was 
designed not only to repudiate the Passaconaway deed but to 
forever disallow an Indian claim of ownership anywhere. Thus 
early did these god-fearing and land-loving people of Massachu- 
setts covet the soil, and from that time on they grabbed what 
was in sight and claimed the remainder. 

In the meantime the Roswell patent of 1627 had been merged 
in an exclusive and inclusive charter from King George to the 
"Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New 
England." It is scarcely necessary to explain that this charter 
included Boston. About this time the authorities discovered 
what had long been known to hunters and rangers in the north 
country that the Merrimack made a great right-angled bend at 
Dracut and thereafter ran northerly, whereupon not only their 
maps but the plan of possession was modified accordingly, and 
a new boom of geographical discovery and exploration was born. 
Scouts and surveyors were at once privately commissioned to 
spy out the land and report. Some years passed, during which 
a number of expeditions were quietly set on foot to explore the 
country in various directions, some of which followed the coast, 
some the Merrimack and others the Connecticut valley. 

From these various sources of information the Massachusetts 
Bay people took their cue, and in 1638 openly sent out "a com- 
mittee to find out the most northerly part of the Merrimack 
River." The committee reported that "some part of it above 
Penacook was more northerly than forty-three and a half de- 
grees." This means literally, allowance: for error considered, 
that upon reaching Franklin the committee took the Pemige- 



102 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

wasset branch, which they followed beyond Plymouth and past 
Baker river to the neighborhood of Woodstock. Here they 
would naturally halt for two reasons : First, the Pemigewasset 
near this point divides into a net-work of headwater streams, of 
which the East Branch, Hancook, and Franconia are the chief. 
Second, the explorers would find themselves in a veritable cul 
de sac formed by the mountains ; on the right the water-shed of 
Sawyer and Swift rivers, tributaries of the Saco ; on the left the 
water-shed of Baker river, and in front the steep dividing crest, 
down whose northern slope the Wild Ammonusuc tears down 
to the Connecticut. On the other hand the committee may 
have followed the valley of Baker river to Warren. Here they 
would have been surrounded by a circular sweep of mountains, 
among them Mt. Carr, Mt. Kineo and Moosilauke ; it is likely 
the way by Baker river would be chosen, rather than that of the 
Pemigewasset, as the old Indian trail followed the former. On 
the other hand they must have halted before reaching the height 
of land at Warren summit ; had they climbed to this point they 
would have seen the white foam of trout-streams tumbling down 
toward the north, might have caught glimpses of the frightful 
precipice of Owl's Head, and could not have failed to see spread 
before them the broad valley of the Connecticut, with the great 
ox-bow in Haverhill. None of these things were alluded to in 
the report of the 1638 committee. It is equally certain they did 
not follow the Winnepesauke, since the lake would have been 
encountered before the parallel of 43^ ° was reached, but the 
lake is likewise unmentioned. So that we are forced to con- 
clude either that this committee followed the Pemigewasset, 
that they were themselves mistaken as to the distance traversed 
or that they made a false report. 

In 1639 another committee was sent "to find out the north- 
ernmost part of Merrimack river." This committee must have 
made a lame and inconclusive survey, for they established the 
line at a great pine tree three miles north of the junction of the 
Pemigewasset and Winnepesauke, 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 103 

Early in 1652 still another commission was appointed by the 
General Court of Massachusetts, to establish the north head of 
the Merrimack, and on the first of August, 1652, it was formally 
fixed at 43 40' 12" — namely, at the outlet of Winnepesauke, 
with an allowance of three miles more north, " wch run into the 
Lake." Thus, with rare forecast, the surveyors drove all other 
contrary-thinking people into deep water. This was the famous 
"Endicott Rock" expedition, concerning which there has been 
much misdirected enthusiasm. Upon the soil of the Bay State 
the shaft at Bunker Hill bears witness to the unselfish heroism 
and self-sacrifice of the sons of New Hampshire ; the monument 
at the Wiers commemorates an act of Puritan greed and perfidy, 
committed against men of their own blood and lineage. The 
heirs of Mason, the assigns of Gorges, the possessors by pur- 
chase, and every claim of occupancy whatsoever was for years 
stubbornly denied by Massachusetts. Forced construction of 
charters, chicanery, indirection, falsehood and fraud failing to 
be sufficient, the General Court resorted to threats of force, in 
turn followed by arrest or banishment. The whole history of 
this usurpation, however, is too black to be painted. 

All of these expeditions, with others set on foot by other par- 
ties in interest, passed directly through Derryfield and around 
Amoskeag Falls ; and yet we are soberly told that these were 
first discovered in 1739, a hundred years later than the excur- 
sion of the first Massachusetts committee. 

We should be glad to believe that the Apostle Eliot preached 
and taught at Amoskeag. Potter labors to show that he came 
here by invitation of Passaconaway a little la'er than 1650, and 
asserts that here were a number of praying Indians who were 
preached and prayed to, and that schools for the youth were also 
established. In 1648 Eliot wrote, with undoubted reference to 
Amoskeag, " There is another great fishing place about three 
score miles from us, whether I intend (Go:l willing) to go next 
spring." In 1649 ne again writes, " I had and still have a great 



104 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

desire to go to a great fishing place, Namaske, upon the Merri- 
mack river." In the same letter he adds, "But in the spring 
when I should have gone, I was not well, so that I saw the Lord 
prevented me of that journey." There is no direct evidence that 
Eliot ever carried out his intention, or that he came farther in 
this direction than Nashua. But it is important to note this 
cumulative evidence that Amoskeag was not only thus early 
known, but that it had been long familiarly known as a great 
fishing place. 

Let us now briefly trace the course of advancing settlements 
in this direction from Massachusetts. Many towns contiguous 
to Boston were early settled, several of which, like Rehoboth, 
embraced extensive tracts afterwards formed into three or more 
townships. The date of settlement is given for Beverly, 1630; 
Andover, 1634; Newburyport, 1633; Salisbury, 1639; Haver- 
hill, 1640, and Dunstable in 1659. A considerable number of 
other towns in Massachusetts were settled between the latter 
date and 1700, but few in southern New Hampshire. This was 
mainly owing to the fact that comparatively few emigrants came 
to New England during the period following 1640, and it is said 
that for a century and a quarter thereafter more people went 
back to England than came hither. These facts have been too 
often overlooked by historical students, who found it difficult to 
account for the delay in making settlements in this part of New 
England. The rigor of the climate, the fear of wild beasts and 
Indians, even necessary hardship and privation, had less effect 
in checking the tide of immigration than the disillusion of the 
dream of wealth in which many of the earlier adventurers had 
indulged. The golden bubble had been pricked, no longer com- 
pelling by its false and glittering allurements. 

Old Dunstable, a portion of which was settled as early as 1659, 
embraced more than two hundred square miles, and out of this 
seven entire townships and parts of several others were subse- 
quently carved. Litchfield was one of these, where a claim of 
settlement is made as early as 1656. 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 105 

Following the list of towns referred to above we find Pelham, 
1721 ; Amherst, 1728; Goffstown and Bedford, 1733, and Derry 
and Londonderry, 1719. 

Looking to the east we see the settlers creeping toward us 
in much the same order, from Exeter and Dover. From these 
towns the people came to the Merrimack valley and became ac- 
quainted with its fisheries long before 1650. As to this western 
extension of our sea-coast towns most historians begin with the 
records and not with the facts. They agree in assigning 1719 
as the date of settling the "Chestnutt Country," afterwards 
" Walnut Hill," " Cheshire," and finally Chester. Charles Bell's 
notes are extremely valuable, although written when he was but 
eighteen years of age. He died young, as the editor's preface 
nai'vely says, "at the early age of 29^ years," and in his death 
the state lost a born historian. The courts have always claimed 
that records make the best witnesses — but there are others — 
and although we are historically limited to 17 19 we shall attempt 
to project the reverted eye to an earlier date. For some years 
many towns not included in Ancient Dover were within the lim- 
its of Exeter, and those not in either were included in Chester, 
which embraced Epping, Raymond, Candia, Auburn, Hooksett, 
and parts of other territory known to the geography of guess- 
work. The early surveyors ran lines hither and yon, forcing a 
balance among the figures read from their rickety transits, but 
being always careful to add, include and reckon enough, with an 
extra allowance for error. So these early surveys, reinforced by 
conjecture, allotted the whole woodland acreage about us, with 
the exception of Dcrryfield, which was providentially reserved 
for greater things. 

Here we are impertinent enough to inquire, Why not Derry- 
field ? Let these four points be remembered : That the first step 
was discovery, the second occupation, the third either grant and 
survey or survey and grant as it might happen, and fourth an 
actual settlement. In the case of Derryfield the surveyors hes- 



106 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

itated and finally halted, not because they were weary nor at the 
command of conscience, nor elsewise by any claim of prior grant 
or survey, but because they found the soil occupied and actual 
settlers in possession. This fact alone strongly reinforces our 
claim that the accepted dates must be revised and put back to 
a time certainly not later than the year 1700 and undoubtedly 
much earlier. 

A society was formed in 1719 "for settling the Chestnutt 
country." The members were familiar with the land they de- 
sired to erect into a township, for they had hunted and fished in 
it for years and had eaten of its nuts. The record recites that 
a previous petition had been preferred in the autumn of 1718, 
by virtue of which the petitioners claimed some rights, setting 
forth that they had "been at a vast expense of blood and treas- 
ure to maintain the same against the enemy." No precise de- 
scription is given of the enemy, but it was intended that those 
to whom they ever prayed should believe them to be Indians, 
though we are inclined to think them certain down-country peo- 
ple from Haverhill, who then claimed to have an Indian deed to 
the whole territory. In any event nothing is more certain than 
the fact that a considerable number of hunters, trappers, fisher- 
men and scouts, if not actual settlers, had ranged back and forth 
for years before the society was formed and that the organiza- 
tion was only a step taken to keep what they already had, and 
at the very least to prevent others from getting it. 

There was at this time and had been from time immemorial 
what was known far and wide as the "Pennacook Path," which 
ran all the way from Exeter through Chester, passing over the 
east shoulder of Mine Hill and so on by "Jake Chase his house," 
to the present highway in Auburn ; thence, skirting the Auburn 
shore to Sucker Village, the trail turned west, making a detour 
northwa«d around the Merrill brook swamp, and again easterly, 
leaving the Massabesic to the south, thence to Amoskeag and 
by way of the Merrimack valley to Concord. We are informed 
that the nearer easterly section of this path ran through " Sam 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 107 

Bell's orchard," and down over Wilson Hill south of the poor- 
farm to the old falls road. There was a similar path to King- 
ston, another to Haverhill by way of Tyngsborough. At about 
the same date the bridge over Exeter river was only passable 
for foot-passengers or riders in single file, but was made " con- 
venient for carts " in 1720. It is said the incorporators of old 
Chester had no shadow of right upon which to base their peti- 
tion, which was only granted by preference over earlier combin- 
ations, although the secretary credited himself with five shillings 
for a " copy of an Indian deed." This was one of the pretences 
early employed by our forefathers, as it was an easy matter to 
induce any Indian under the seduction of Jamaica rum to affix 
his mark to a deed or any number of them, and the wily settlers 
were quick to employ these opportunities. 

That the soil of Chester was occupied by actual settlers long 
before 1719 is sufficiently shown by the action of the new pro- 
prietors at their first meeting, when the selectmen were empow- 
ered to eject all trespassers upon the land covered by Governor 
Shute's charter, and a committee was subsequently chosen for 
the same purpose. 

In August, 1737, Chester had a visit from Goverror Belcher, 
and in the earliest account of his tour we read that " His Excel- 
lency was much pleased with the fine soil of Chester, the extra- 
ordinary improvements at Derry, and the mighty fall at Skeag." 
This was two years before the date of Secombe's famous sermon 
at the falls, and conclusively shows that even at that date there 
were good bridle-paths from Portsmouth to Amoskeag and from 
the falls to Derry. As a matter of fact nearly every part of the 
territory under consideration was much better known and easier 
of access than the historians would have us believe. 

In May, 1739, John McMurphy was granted a privilege to 
build a grist-mill at •« Massabesic River," below the great fall, 
"provided said McMurphy shall not stop or impede the course 
of the fish up the said river, but shall and will leave, continue 
and make sufficient passage for that purpose." This allusion 



108 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

to "great falls" upon what we now know as Cohas Brook very 
clearly indicates that a much heavier volume of water commonly 
flowed from the lake at that date than has been known for two 
generations. The cause of the present greatly decreased and 
diminishing flow is obviously to be attributed to the disappear- 
ance of the great forests. The object of this old provision for a 
fish way was to protect the ale-wives in their run to the lake, as 
they furnished a considerable food-supply to the settlers. Laws 
were also passed to prevent the killing of deer and " Deer In- 
spectors " were duly appointed. On the other hand a bounty of 
twenty shillings was offered for each head of "a full-grown 
wolfe." In this year more than twenty wolves were killed in 
Chester and Derryfield, of which John Stark killed two. 

In 1745 a man by the name of Bunten was killed by Indians 
in Hooksett. He was from Pelham and on his way to Penacook, 
following the old path to which reference has been made. 

The 1 719 Chester petition before referred to was "signed by 
about 100 hand," and modestly asked for a tract "on the east to 
Kingston and Exeter, on the south to Haverhill, and on the 
West and North to ye woods." This elastic piece of " waiste 
land," originally intended to be eight miles square, was after- 
wards increased to ten and finally to fourteen, which was under 
the limit, and extended from the Exeter line westerly to the 
Merrimack north of the Derryfield reservation. This latter ap^ 
pears to have been first known as Harrytown or Henrysburg, 
and originally consisted of about eight square miles, but in 175 1 
eighteen square miles from Chester and nine from Londonderry 
were added. 

At various dates between 1639 and 1733 — the Massachusetts 
century of dishonor — that commonwealth made an extensive 
series of land grants in the disputed northern territory, ranging 
as far north as Lake Winnepesauke. These grants were of two 
classes, those given to friends and supporters of her claims and 
those made to soldiers. It was well understood that none others 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. IO9 

need apply. Many of the grants issued to soldiers who had en- 
gaged in the old French and Indian wars were hastily made, the 
bounds illy defined and the land hard to locate. Whole town- 
ships were granted by guesswork. Of these the record remains 
as to Bow, Todds-Town, Beverly-Canada and Bakerstown. Of 
other early grants known to have been made one was of a part 
of Derryfield, but the records are lost, and we are inclined to 
believe this to have been the original Harrytown grant. The 
charter for Derryfield was not issued till 175 1, and did not even 
then include that part of old Harrytown near Martin's Ferry, 
which was added later. The evidence as to Bow and Dunbar- 
ton is conclusive and the lines stand. Some grants were early 
settled while others were not ; but the Derryfield grantees came 
without delay, the fishery alone presenting the principal induce- 
ment, much of the soil being very poor. 

Not a few towns changed names from three to six times in ten 
years, were granted and regranted to differing parties, lines and 
bounds over-ran, fell short or conflicted, and order only came 
after the Revolution, when the original claimants, like Gridley, 
had died out of court and chancery. The history of those old 
claims and counter-claims, though full of stirring incidents, can 
never be written ; many a settler defended his homestead gun 
in hand against the emissaries of the Great and General Court 
of Massachusetts, and his dogs were trained to discover in the 
wind the smell of Boston. In the general absence of fences, cat- 
tle and hogs ranged at long and at large, and we read of farmers 
who turned out cows to graze in Haverhill and the next day 
found them in Hooksett. Thus here and there are caught brief 
glimpses projected upon the scene by the side-lights of history. 
The most patient research and scholarship is in our day engaged 
in unravelling the tangled threads of our early colonial annals, 
and in this task any contribution, however slight, must be of 
value, and to this end we have labored. 

The date of the settlement of Salisbury, for instance, is given 
as 1748, and yet it is traditional that as many as eight families 



110 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

resided in the township before that year, the " Mink Hills " hav- 
ing been known and named in 1737, and Kearsarge certainly as 
early as 1657. A similar state of facts is generally true of all 
the earlier townships. 

Nuffield gives a good example of historical uncertainty, the 
probable occupation ranging from 1629 to 17 19, the latter date 
alone standing for settlement. But it is known that not less 
than four Indian deeds previously passed to the whole or a por- 
tion of that territory, one of which from Indian John was dated 
March, 1701. In one deed the description recites "a certain 
tract of land about thirty miles square, to run from the Merri- 
mack river eastward and so up the country." In another the 
"northerly bound was the westerly part of Oyster river, which 
is about four miles northerly beyond Lampereele river." As 
Oyster river is in Durham and the Lamprey in Raymond it is 
easy to see the Nutfield people had a good margin. 

Finally, the first presence of white men in Derryfield must be 
put not later than 1636, the date of a probable survey by Bur- 
det, under instructions from Governor Winthrop, carried out by 
Captain Wiggin, and even at that time the route was familiar to 
hunters and scouts, to which the record adds "artists," which 
term was probably intended to mean surveyors. Waldron's 
testimony is conclusive as to this point. Peter Weare says that 
since 1637 ^ e na d "in the same way become familiar with the 
same region," he having " oftentimes travelled the country," and 
"some of the natives always with him." He adds that he had 
been on "a great mountain north of Lake Winnipicioket." All 
these expeditions went up the Merrimack because that river was 
the bone of contention, and without doubt followed and contrib- 
uted to make the famous " Pennacook Path." We find also the 
record of Woodward and Stratton's survey in 1638, of Wood- 
ward, Howlet, Jacob Clarke and Manning, in 1639, and after 
that a deluge of expeditions by opposing factions. Some of these 
long-lost records may yet be brought to light. 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. Ill 

The earliest map of the Merrimack river from its source to its 
mouth is also the latest discovered, but is unfortunately without 
date. It is finely drawn and certainly the work of an "artist." 
The " plot " gives the photography of the river, with lakes and 
mountains on either side. It shows the islands, bends and falls ; 
the Uncanoonucks, Massabesic Lake and Amoskeag Falls are 
laid down, and the Suncook river is put where it belongs. The 
work is of such a character that the whole valley from Dun- 
stable to Penacook is seen to have been pictured from an actual 
survey, probably the first undertaken by competent hands. 

We cannot now further prolong our researches in this field of 
inquiry. We have purposely abandoned the beaten route hith- 
erto followed by historians, and have hazarded an attempt to 
revise some of their conclusions by methods of historical deduc- 
tion. Wherever possible ascertained dates have been assigned, 
and whenever by reasonable inference these were found to be 
misleading the known facts have been compared and the logical 
interpretation followed. In concluding our pictures of the past 
we may be pardoned for renewing the suggestion that we claim 
for them nothing not included in the title chosen, and that they 
pretend to be no more than contributions. Should these serve 
to awaken a new dawn of inquiry and rouse the spirit of research 
the writer will be well contented. 



CHAPTER XL 

HOME LIFE, CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS— THE DERRYFIELD SOCIAL LIBRARY 
—SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION. 

The home life of the first settlers of Derryfield, so far as the 
direct testimony can be relied upon, was in marked contrast to 
that of most New England settlements, and outwardly presented 
few characteristic Puritan features. All accounts agree in pro- 
nouncing them generally a rough lot, much more closely resem- 
bling the frontiermen of our own day than the traditional relig- 
ious community of that age. The negative evidence as to this 
point is still stronger, as the record discloses no movement or 
organized effort to provide for preaching or religious teaching of 
any sort whatever; public means of grace and an active spread 
of the gospel were of so little importance as utterly to escape 
the notice of local historians. If gospel privileges were enjoyed 
the opportunities were wide apart. There were no settled min- 
isters, no stated supply, and occasional preaching was as rare as 
earthquakes. Before Secombe's salmon-sermon in 1739 it is not 
certainly known that any religious exercise or exhortation what- 
ever took place within the limits of Derryfield, nor for rather 
more than a quarter of a century thereafter. 

The religious record — or non-record — would be amusing if it 
were not distinctly disgraceful. Potter says McDowell probably 
preached here now and then before 1754, in which year the 
town voted to build a meeting house, but this was the next year 
reconsidered. In 1758 the frame was raised and the building 
boarded and shingled in 1759, though still without underpinning 
and having but one door, one layer of rough flooring and no 
pews, and this skeleton of the visible church was then badly in 
need of repairs. Fifteen years later, though some preaching in- 
tervened and the Rev. George Gilmore was called, the call was 
not answered, and the ravages of decay continued to affect both 
God's house and people. 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 113 

The Revolution now became matter of concern to the exclus- 
ion of a multitude of interests ; there was no Sunday for soldiers 
or citizens, and the cause of Zion languished. In 1780 an effort 
to repair the building failed, three years later the repairs were 
not completed, and this state of affairs continued without better- 
ment until 1790, at which time the "pew-ground" of the main 
floor was sold at public auction, and the gallery area similarly 
disposed of three years later. But the gallery pews were never 
built and no part of the house ever finished. In the thirty-five 
years which had elapsed the progress of decay had outstripped 
the process of repair. Potter says, "The house was fit for a 
place of worship at no time, but in summer and of a fair clay it 
answered better than a barn." The old, weather-beaten struc- 
ture is well remembered by the writer, and remained in a dilap- 
idated condition in Hallsville till 1853, when it was sold, moved 
a short distance, and converted into a dwelling-house block, 
which is still standing. 

Throughout this entire period we hear next to nothing about 
schools. It is said there were none in Derryfield before or dur- 
ing the Revolution, and Dr. Wallace asserts that no steps pro- 
ductive of actual results were taken until some years later than 
1788, and adds that "for nearly a century after the settlement 
of the town there was neither lawyer, physician or minister 
among its permanent inhabitants." It is certain there was no 
schoolhouse untill 1795, and even that was built by private sub- 
scription, none being built by vote of the town earlier than the 
year 1798, possibly later. 

In such a community the morals of the people must have kept 
pace with their ignorance and inattention to godliness. The 
pursuits of fishing, hunting and river-rafting were not calculated 
to favor a devout frame of mind, and the conventional restraints 
of the church were lacking. A considerable number of the ear- 
lier inhabitants were rollicking, devil-may-care roysterers, who 
spent their spare time in wresting, bowling, or pitching horse- 
IO 



114 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

shoes for pennies, accompanied with a daily diet of rum. The 
records show frequent brawls and fighting, sometimes among 
themselves, sometimes with kindred spirits from Londonderry, 
who were not averse to liquor at home or abroad. The annual 
reproduction of Donnybrook Fair by our Scotch-Irish neighbors 
included the more lively features of its old-world model. The 
reverend historian of Londonderry, with an unusual devotion to 
truth, says that this fair " proved a moral nuisance, attracting 
chiefly the more corrupt portion of the community and exhibit- 
ing for successive days in each year scenes of vice and folly in 
some of their worst forms." These fairs were attended by large 
delegations of the rougher element of Derryfield. Our limits 
permit us to give no more than the setting and outline of the 
picture ; details are not difficult to be supplied, since the same 
causes and like effects still surround us. 



DERRYFIELD SOCIAL LIBRARY. 

An opportunity has been afforded us to examine the book of 
records of the " Social Library," which has never been printed. 
Contrary to our first design, which contemplated a mere epito- 
me, we have thought best to reproduce the entire record, with 
the exception of the charter, which may be found in the first 
number of the published papers of the " Manchester Historic 
Association." A verbatim copy follows : 

At a Library Meeting held December 12th, 1796 

Voted to form a society by the name of the Proprietors of The Social Li- 
brary in Derryfield — 

Voted To Raise Two Dollars on each Right or share 

Voted Capt John Goffe Clerk to said Meeting 

Voted Daniel Davis Receive the money & purchase the books 

At a Library Meeting held January 12th 1797 
Voted Capt John Goffe Moderator 
Voted Daniel Davis Librarian & Clerk 
Voted Capt John Perham Daniel Davis & John Goffe Inspectors 



ftlSTORY OF DERRYFIELD. I I 5 

At a Library Meeting held on the 6th November 1797 
Voted Capt John Goffe Moderator 
Voted Daniel Davis Librarian & Clerk 
Voted That the Proprietors keep their books three months 
Voted Capt John Perham, Daniel Davis, & David Young Directors 
Voted to accept Capt John Goffe book at 50 Cents 

Voted To Raise Fifty Cents annually as an increasing fund to support 
said Library 

At the Annual Meeting Held on Monday the 5th November 1798 At 4 
oClock P M 

Voted Daniel Davis Moderator 

Voted William Farmer Librarian & Clerk 

Voted Samuel P. Kidder, Daniel Davis, & William Farmer Directors 

Voted That the Words ( Derryfield Social Library Annual Meeting First 
Monday in November) be printed in each book belonging to said Library 

Voted That the Fifty Cents as an increasing Fund be Omitted the ensu- 
ing year — 

Voted that the Two Vollumes of the Magazene shall be taken out & Re- 
turned as one other Vollume 

At the Annual Library meeting on the First Monday of November 1799 
at Four O Clock P M 

Voted Daniel Davis Moderator 

Voted Daniel Davis Librarian & Clerk 

Voted To Raise Fifty Cents on a share the present Year 

Voted Samuel P. Kidder, Daniel Davis & William Farmer Directors 

Voted that the Fifty Cents be paid to the Clerk by the 20th December next 

Voted That Daniel Davis Purchase the books 

Voted That new subscribers be admitted the year ensuing at two Dollars 
Each share 

Voted that no Proprietor that keeps a book three months shall take it out 
again at Return. 

[ Here follows the Charter.] 

At a Meeting Legally Warned and holden on Monday 3d Novr 1800 
Voted Capt John Perham Moderator 
Voted William Farmer Librarian & Clerk 

Voted Samuel P. Kidder, Benja F. Stark & Daniel Davis Directors 
Voted To Raise Fifty Cents on each share for purchasing New Books 
Voted Daniel Davis be the Person to purchase said Books 
Voted to allow Danl Davis $1.60 Cts for Paines writing 
Voted to Purchase two Blk Books one for the purpose of Making Records 
the other for accompts — 

Voted that the Clerk make the proper Records in said Books 



Il6 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

Voted that Fifty Coppys of the Constitution be printed 
Voted that Benjn F. Stark be the person to hire the aforesaid printing — 
Voted that any person may be admitted the ensuing year For two Dollars 
Voted that the Directors be authoris'd to purchase a book Case for the 
use of the Proprietors. 

At the Annual Meeting holden on the First Monday in Novr 1801 at the 
House of Wm Farmer 

Voted Lft Benja F. Stark Moderator 

Voted Daniel Davis Librarian & Clerk 

Voted Samuel P. Kidder Daniel Davis & John Perham Directors 

Voted To Raise Fifty Cents on a share 

Voted that the Librarian Collect all arrearages by the First Day of Janu- 
ary next ensuing 

Voted that Daniel Davis Purchase the Books 

Voted that New Proprietors Come in at Two. Dollar the year Ensuing 

The Subscribers Finding it necessary to Call a special Meeting do hereby 
Notify and warn the Proprietors of Derryfield Social Library to meet at the 
Dwelling House of Daniel Davis in said Derryfield On Monday the Fif- 
teenth Day of March next at Four OClock P. M to Act on the Following 
Articles (Viz) 

1st To Choose a Moderator to Regulate s'd Meeting 

2d To Choose a Clerk Librarian & one Director for the Remainder of 
the present year A punctual attendance of the Proprietors with their Books 
are Requested — 

Derryfield 24th Febry 1802 John Perham ) 

Daniel Davis > Directors 

Sam'l P Kidder ) 

At a Special Meeting Legally Warned & Holden on Monday 15th March 
1802 at the House of Daniel Davis — 
Voted Benja F. Stark Moderator 
Voted Saml P. Kidder Clerk & Librarian 
Voted David Flint Director 

We the Subscribers acknowledge ourselves to be members of the Derry- 
field Social Library Company and promise to Conform to all rules and regu- 
lations which may at any time be adopted by the society while we remain 
members of said society 

James Griffin paid Asa Haseltine sold his rights to his son 

Philip Haseltine Jr Asa 

John Dickey Jr paid David Flint 

Stephen Worthley Reuben Sawyer 

Peter Hills Ephraim White 

Moses Davis interest of John G. Moor Joseph Farmer Jr 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. WJ 

James Parker Wm Walker 

Jesse Baker Israel Webster 

Moses Heseltine for Pingrey James Nutt 

Amos Weston William Perham 

Isaac Huse David Webster Jr 

John Proctor Job Rowell 

Elijah A. Nutt John Ray 

John Hall Saml McAUaster 

John Frye paid By Book No 30 David Adams 

Nathan Johnson paid Phinehas Pettengail 

Daniel Hall Jr Ephraim Stevens 

John Dwinell Paid Jacob Chase 

Samuel Jackson John Stark Jr paid 

Nathaniel Conant Saml Moor Jr paid 

Phinehas Bayley Stephen Moor 

John Perham Joseph Moor paid 

Benja F Stark Robert Hall in lew of John Gammel 

Saml P Kidder Asa Heseltine 3rd 

[ These names were all signed in the handwriting of the subscribers. The 
following names were also written, but for some unknown reason were after- 
wards crossed out with a pen: " Benjn Leslie, Ann E Couch Paid Stephen 
Pingrey Wm Farmer transferd to John Gambel Mrs Edna Davis".] 

At a Library Meeting held on the first Monday of November 1802 
Voted Lt Benj F Stark Moderator 
Voted to admit new members at two Dollars Each 
Voted to Relinquish John Tufts fines 
Voted Saml Moor Jr Clerk and Librarian 

Voted Saml P Kidder Saml Moor Jr Capt John Perham Benj F Stark and 
David Adams directors 
Voted to except the Constitution in lue of the old one that was lost 
Voted that all fines due be paid the first of January 1803 

At the annual Library meeting held on 7th Novr 1803 
Voted, John Stark Moderator. 

Voted, to excuse Philip Heseltine Jr his taxes and fines for the Book case 
Voted, Philip Heseltine Jr Librarian — 
Cash on hand six Dollars and seventy two Cents 

Philip Heseltine ) 
Voted, Samuel Hall > Directors 

William Farmer 1 
Voted, to buy Gordens History and Rollins, s antient History 

At the annual meeting of the members of Derryfield social Library held 
on the fifth of November AD 1804 

Voted, to adjourn the meeting until the 12th of Novr 

Derryfield 12th Novr 1804 meeting being opened according to adjournment 

Voted, B F Stark Moderator 

Voted, to admit new members at two Dollars each down 



Il8 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

Voted, Samuel P Kidder Treasurer — 

B F Stark 1 

Samuel Moor Jr 
Voted, Capt John Perham ^Directors 

John Stark Esq 

Ephraim White j 
Voted, the Directors meet the first Monday in February May and August 
Voted, Benjamin Leslie Librarian and Clerk 

Voted, that the Librarian collect all the Debts and fines that now is or 
may become Due the year ensuing 

Voted, to give Lieut Daniel Davis two Dollars in full of all accounts he 
hath against the society — 
Voted, to abate Samuel Hall his fine of twenty five Cents 

Derryfield, November 4th 1805 at a Libraiarys Meeting held for the pur- 
pose 

Voted Saml P Kidder Moderator 

Voted to Choose three directors 

) Nathaniel Moor 

Voted directors > Ephraim White 

) Capt John Perham 

Voted Samuel P Kidder Treasurer 

Voted New members be admitted for two Dollars 

Voted to Choose an agent to Collect the tax and the fines that are due 

Voted Capt Perham Collect the above tax &c 

Voted the Money be Collected in thirty days 

Voted the directors overhall the Books and Select out such as they think 
proper and sell them to the highest bidder this night 

Voted to Choose an agent to lay out the money and purchas the new books 

Voted Saml P Kidder purchas the Books 

Voted Saml Moor Jr Librarian and Clerk 

Derryfield November 3d 1806 Annual Meeting 

The proprietors of the Derryfield Social Library Met Novmr 3d agreeable 
to Constitution and acted on the following articles 

1st Voted Capt Joseph Moor Moderator 

2d Voted John G Moor Librarian and Clerk 

3d ) Lt Job Rowell 

Voted > Benjamin Leslie 

Directors ) John G Moor 

4th Voted that Each man pay the Money which is due Before he recev a 
Book 

Voted New members Come in at 2 Dollars Each 

Voted to reconsider Capt Perham as Collector 

Voted John G Moor Collector of the whole 

Voted the Librarian Purchase the Books 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. I 19 

Voted the Librarian Call on the last years treasurer for Money which be- 
longs to the Library 

Derryfleld November 2nd 1807 
At an annual Meeting of the proprietors of the Derryfleld Social Library, 
holden at the house of John G Moor's in sd Derryfleld, proceeded as follows 
Voted 1st Lt Job Rowell Moderator 

2nd To ajourn this Meeting to the 2nd Monday in November to Meet at 
John Hall's Jr in sd Town at four of the Clock Afternoon 

Novemr 9th Mett according to ajournrnent 
Voted Mrs Farmer Clerk & Librarian 

James Nutt ) 
Voted John Stark, Jr > Directors 

Job Rowell ) 
Voted the Directors Collect all Taxes & Moneys that shall be found due 
Voted not to raise Money the present year 

Voted the Directors sell all such Books as they may think proper 
Voted to Reconsider the 4th article in a Meeting of the year 1806 

At a meeting of the proprietors of the Derryfleld Social Library holden at 
Mrs Farmers house on February 8th 1808 

Voted Joseph Moor Moderator 

Voted To Excuse Mr Flint one Dollar for the two first Taxes Charged to 
him 

Voted to relinquish 50c of Capt Moor's fine 

Voted The remainder of the fines be Colected 

Voted to Disolve this meeting 

Mrs Farmer Clerk &C 

Derryfleld Novr 7th 1808 
At an anual Meeting of the proprietors of the Derryfleld social Library, 
holden at the hous of Mrs Farmer's in sd Derryfleld proceded as follows 
Voted 1st Robt Hall Moderator 

Voted 2d To ajourn this Meeting to the 1st Monday in December next at 
four of the Clock P. M. 

December 5th 1808 
Met according to adjournment and Chose Amos Weston Clerk and Li- 
brayan 

Samuel Moor Jr f 
Amos Weston 
Voted Joseph Moor «J Directors 
John Adams 
Robert Hall 
Voted the Directors Collect all the Money that shall be found due to Li- 
brary by the next annual meeting Voted the directors lay out the Money 
due to the Library and purchase the Books 



120 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

Derryfield 6th of November 1809 the proprietors of Derryfield social Li- 
brary met and voted as follows 

1 st Voted to adjourn the meeting the 13 day of this month at 6 of the clock 
P M 

November 13th 1809 then met according to adjournment and Voted as fol- 
lows 1st Amos Weston Clerk and Librarian the present year 

2nd Voted Amos Weston Collect all moneys due to the society and be 
treasurer 

3rd Voted Isaac Huse Esq Robert Hall & Saml Moor Jr be Directors the 
present year 

4th Voted that new proprietors be admited to the society on paying two 
Dollars 

5th Voted that the Laws of the State of New Hampshire be bought for 
the society 

6th Voted that the Laws of New Hampshire be returned within forty five 
days from the time it is taken out 

7th Voted the Directors purchase such Books as they see proper 

Manchester 5th of November 1810 
At an annual meeting of the proprietors of the Derryfield Social Library 
holden at the house of Amos Weston in S'd Manchester proceded as follows 
Voted 1st Isaac Huse Moderator of sd Meeting 
Voted 2nd Amos Weston Clerk and Librarian 

Isaac Huse ) 

Voted 3d Samuel Moor Jr > Directors 
Robert Adams ) 

Manchester November 4th 181 1 
At an anual Meeting of the Proprietors of the Derryfield Social Library 
holden at the house of Mr Amos Weston in said town proced as follows 
Vot 1st Isaac Huse Moderator 
Vot 2nd to adjourn this Meeting to the last Monday in November 

November 15 181 1 
Met according to adjournment Voted Isaac Huse Librarian and Clark 

Job Rowell ) 

Voted Robert Adams > directors 

John Perham ) 
November 2d — 1812 . Four of the proprietors met and agreed to ajorn our 
anual meeting to 16 Novr ins at 4 oclock P M 

Novr 16th 1812 Met agreable to ajournment 

Voted Samuel Moor Moderator 

Voted Moses Haseltine Librarian & clerk — 

Voted Capt Perham Job Rowell & Robert Adams directors 

Voted to Relinquish to Mr Ephraim White a claim of 50 cts 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 121 

Voted Isaac Huse Agent to Collect what appears to be due to the Incor- 
porators 

Manchester November ist 1813 Isaac Huse Moderator the proprietors 
Met and Agreed to ajorn our anuel meeting to the 15 of November Instant 
at Six oclock P M 

November the 15 1813 Met according to adjournment and voted to ajourn 
to the twenty Ninth of November Instant Met acrding to ajournment and 
procded as follows Voted Robt Perham Libirian and Clark 

Robert Adams ) 

Samuel Moor > Directors 

Job Rowell ) 

November Manchester November 7th 1814 this Being the Day of the 
anual Meatting For the Proprietors of the Manchester Socel Library Not a 
Nuf to hold a meaten or to Do Buseness Chose John G Moor Moderator 
and adyourned the meating to this Day Fortnight at the house of Robert 
Perrams at four Clock P M 

November 21th this Day Met accordang to adjournment and Chose John 
Dwinnell Clark and lybrarein 

And 
Samuel Moor ( 

Samuel P Kidder < Durectors 
John Stark Esq ( 

November 6 — 1815 
The Members of Manchester Social Library Met and proceeded to the 
Choice of officrs for the year ensuing 
Choose John Stark Moderator John G Moor Clerk protem 
Choose; John Dwinel Clerk & Librarian 

( Isaac Huse 
Directors < John Stark 
( Job Rowel 
Voted John Frye be Treasurer 

Voted that the directer be authorized to examin the Books and sell at auc- 
tion all such Books as they shall think propper for sale 

Voted that new propritors be admitted for the usual price of $2.00 
Voted to adjourn the meeting to the 20th November 

attest John G. Moor Clerk p t 
November 4th 1816 
At a meating of the Proprietors of the Derryfield Library holden at the 
house of John Dwinell on Monday the 4th of November 1816 and proceded 
as follows 

1 Chose John Stark Esq Moderator 

2 Chose John Dwinell Librarien and Clark and Colector and treausury 
Chose ( Isaac Huse C 

John Frye < Drectors 
James Nutt ( 



122 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

November Monday the 3th 1817 
at a meating of a number of the Proprietors of the Manchester Library 
holden at the house of John Dwinells and Chose Isaac Huse Esq Moderator 
and Voted to agorn said meeting till the 17th Day of November instant at 
4 oclock afternoon 

November 17th 1817 the proprietors of the Social Library met according 
to a agournment and Voted that Isaac Huse Esq stand Moderator of said 
meeting and Chose John Dwinell Clerk and libarien and Chose 

John Dickey ) 

John Stark Esq > Directors 
and Nathan Johnson ) 
and Chose Isaac Huse Colector and tresurer and Voted that all the fiens 
Due on the Book be Corlected 

Voted not to have anything to do with any Books of Elijah Nutt Except 
that one which was Excepted and that was the Columbian orator Price 
$0=75 John Dwinell Clark 

November Monday 2th 1818 
the members of the Manchester Sochal Library met and 

1 Chose James Griffen Modorator 

2 Chose John Dwinell Clark and Libaran 

3 Chose James Nut ) 

Capt Ephraim Stevens Jun > Derectors 
John Proctor ) 

4 Chose Israel Webster 3 (?) treasury 

5 Chose James Nut Collecttor 

6 Voted to adjorn this meeting till the first Mondy in febury Nex at 4 
oclock at the hous of said Dwinells 

Monday Febary 1st 1819 Som of the Propritors Met according to agorn- 
ment and Chose John Dicken Moderator Protem and Did adjorn said meet- 
ing till the first Monday in march next at 4 oclock 

Novembr Monday the ith 1819 
At a meeting of the Proprietors of the Manchester Library Holden at the 
House of John Dwinell and Ouimby and Chose Isaac Huse Esq Moderator 
and Chose John Dwinell Clark and librarien and Voted that the Clark Be 
autherized to Examon all the Books that are taken out of the Librey from 
time to time and to Examon them when taken in and to see if any Damiges 
are Don to any Book and to Prise the Damige Done and to keep a true a 
Count of Said Damage and make a Return of the same to the Directors at 
Each of their meetings and the Directors are to Exhibit the same at the 
aneuel Meeting and Chose Isaac Huse 

and Jobe Rowell { Directors 

and John Dickey 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 123 

Novembr Mondy the Sixth Day 1820 
This Day a full Number met at the house of John Dwinells and Elijah 
Quimby of the members of the Sochal lybry in Manchester and Voted John 
Dwinell Moderator of said meeting 

Voted John Dwinell Clark and lybarin and Voted Elisha Quimby for 
Clark Protem 

Chose Jams Grifin ( nirertor* 

Samuel P Kidder Esq S^Prest vear 
Capt Joseph Moor ( the Frest ? ear 

Voted adjourn this Meeting until the ith Monday of Feb Next 1821 5 Day 
at 4 oclock 

John Dwinel Clerk 

Met agreeably to the adjournment and Read the Constitution and Voted 
as Follows 

ily to excuse Saml P Kidder from the office of Director 

Chose Robt Adams in his stead 

Voted to excuse said Adams 

Chose Capt Ephraim Stevens 2nd Director 

Voted to dismiss this Meeting 

John Dwinell }>Clerk 

Manchester Nov 5 1821 
Met at the Annual Meeting a Few of the Members and Voted to adjourn 
this meeting until Saturday the first day December Next at 4 Oclock P M 

Saturday December 1. 182 1 met according to adjournment 
1st voted Capt Dwinell Moderator 
2d voted Samuel Jackson Librarian 
3d voted John Dickey } 

John Gamble > Directors 

John Proctor ) 
4th voted to adjourn the meeting until the 4th Instant at three OClock P. 
M. to be holden at Dwinell & Quimbys tavern 

Tuesday December 4th met agreeably to adjournment and voted to make 
a further adjournment until Tuesday the 18th of December instant at 4 
O. Clock P. M. to be holden at Dwinell & Quimbys tavern 

December 8th 1821 
We the directors met and examined the Library and found in said Library 
Seventy four Books besides those that are taken out — 

John Gamble ) Directors 
John Dickey \ 

Manchester, December 18th 182 1 
Met agreeable to adjournment 
Voted Coll Nathl Moor Moderator 
Voted S P Kidder Clerk and Librarian 



124 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

Voted J. G. Moor Assistant Clerk 
Voted John Dickey ) 

Robert Hall \ Directors 
Robert Adams ) 
Voted Capt John Dwinell Collector 
Voted Samuel Jackson Treasurer 

Voted That an Inventory of all the Books be taken by the Directors pre- 
vious to the Removal of the Library 

S. P. Kidder, Clerk 

Manchester December 2th 1822 
this Day the Members of the Sochal Librey a Greeable to agornment 

1 and Chose John Stark Moderator 

2 and Chose John Dwinell Clark and Librarian 

the moderator has withdrawn 

3 Chose Jese Bakar moderator in the Room of said Stark 

4 Chose Ruben Sawyer ) 

Nathan Johnson > Directors 
Job Rowell ) 

5 Voted that the Director shall Be Colectors of all moneys Bac 

6 Votted to Give mis Elize Stark hir fine 
Voted to Desolve said meeting 

Manchester November 3th 1823 
this Day a Number of the membrs of the Sochal Librey met but not a Nuf 
to act Business only to open the meeten, and Chose John Proctoter modera- 
tor and adjorned said meeting untill the 17 Day of this Present month at 5 
oclock afternoon 

Manchester November 17th 1823 
this Day a nomber of the Proprietor met But not a Nuff to act Busies But 
have a Gorned said meeteen untill the first monday in November Next 

John Dwinell Clark 

Manchester November 1 Day 1824 

and a fool meeting of the Propriertors and held thir meeting and Voted as 
follows 

first Chose Israel webster moderator 

secontly Chose John Dwinell Librain and Clark 

thirdley Chose Capt Ephraim Stevens John Gambel and Isaac huse Di- 
rectors 

forthly Chose John Gambel Corlector 

fifthly Chose John Dwinell tresurer John Dwinell Clark 

1824 at a meeting of the Directors of the Derryfield Social Library Decem- 
ber 11, 1824 
Examined the Records and found due to the said Library from sundrys 
persons — fines — $2,62 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. - 125 

Manchester December 25 1824 

This day settled with Lieut Job Rowell and found due to the Social Lybra 

seventy eight cents John Gamble ) D j rectors 

Isaac Huse ) 

Manchester January 14th 1823 this Day Receved of Lieut Job Rowell the 
Sum of Seventy Eight Cents Receved by me John Dwinell 

November 7th 1825 
this Day a number of the Proprietors of the Social Library in Manches- 
ter met but not a nuf to hold a meeting But Called the meeting and Chose 
Isaac huse moderator and ajorned said meeting untill the 28 Day of Novem- 
ber instant John Dwinell Clark 

November 28th 1825 this Day the Proprietors of the Sochall Libre met ac- 
cording to ajornment tho not a Nuf to transact Busines and Voted to aGorn 
said meeting untill the first monday of November in the year 1826 at four 
oclock after Noon at the place whear the Libra is kept 

Manchester December nth 1826 this Day I the Subscriber have taken the 
Sochall Librey and 92 Books from John Dwinell which I am a Countabel 
for as witness my hand Daniel Hall 

Received December 8th 1827 the Social Library consisting of 81 volumes 
and it appears by Lieut Daniel Hall's account there are eleven Books out 

Samuel Jackson, Librarian 

AtteSt J E o P b h Riwen teVenSjr K° mmi "- 

[The foregoing include all the meetings of the proprietors. Meetings of 
the directors were held during this time in November, 1817, December, 1819, 
January, 1823, November, 1823, February, 1824, September, 1825, and Novem- 
ber and December, 1826. Subsequently to the last meeting of the proprie- 
tors the directors held two meetings in 1828, and one each in 1829, 1830, 1831 
and 1832. The following books were bought in 1823 : " The holy War Price 
$0 -80, Gaseteer Price 1-67, the life of Eaton 1-75 and one Vollom on the 
World to Come which we have receved of Mr finis Baley for a shear in the 
librey #2-00." In addition to the list of fifty-four subscribers before given 
on pages 116 and 117, we give the following additional names : John Goffe, 
Daniel Davis, David Young, John Tufts, Samuel Hall, Nathaniel Moor, 
John Adams, Isaac Huse, Robert Adams, Elizabeth Stark, Mrs. Farmer, 
Israel Webster, Thomas Stickney and Elisha Quimby. The whole number 
of names of proprietors as shown by these records appears to have been sixty- 
eight. Of these but four have middle names; nine have military titles; two 
have the title of "Mr." and two — John Stark and Isaac Huse — are honored 
with the title of "Esq." The whole number of books on hand in 1826 was 
eighty-seven, with "one Book misen."] 



126 CONTRIBUTIONS TO TH£ 

Eight additional names are given by Mr. William H. Huse, 
from records in his possession, which names appear in the paper 
before referred to. He gives also a list of books which exhibits 
some inaccuracies. In the copy of the charter which he repro- 
duces the attesting signature is given as " Philip Carrigian," but 
in the copy engrossed in our record-book it is given as " Nathl 
Parker, Depy Secy." The appended lists give the titles of all 
the books bought, with the cost of each in pounds, shillings 
and pence up to the close of 1798, after which the accounts were 
kept in federal currency : 

The Proprietors of Derryfield Library Bot of E Larkin Boston 4th Jany 
1796 1 Spectator 8 Vol ,£1.16.0 1 Fool Quality 3 V 15.0 1 Newton on Proph- 
ecies 2 V 136 1 Christian & Farmers Mag 2 V 18.0 1 Cooks Voige 2 V 
15.0 1 View of Religion 10. o 1 Watts on the Mind 6.00 1 Pleasing Instruc- 
tor 5.3 1 Franklins Works 6.0 1 Valuable Secrets 6.0 1 Burtons Lectures 
5.3 1 Farmers Letters 4.6 1 Carvers Travels 50 1 Female Jockey Club 
4.6 1 Looking Glass for the Mind 4 6 1 Forresters 6.0 1 Pomfrets Poems 
4.0 1 Medical Pocket Book 4.6 1 Ovids Art of Love 3.9 1 History of Amer- 
ica 2.3 1 Bold Stroke for a Wife 1.6 1 Provoked Wife 1.6 1 Agreeable 
Surprise 0.9 I Arabian Nights Entertainments 2 V 10.6 1 Winchester's 
Dialogues 4.6 [This amounted to ,£9.13-9.] Deduct 10 pr Ct 19.4 — leaving 
,£8.14.5 : Blank Book 3.0 Equal to $2957 Seven Wise Masters Rome 06 
Howards Life 72 Priest Craft 3 Vol 2.09 Infant Baptism 50. Total #32.94 

The Proprietors of Derryfield Library Bot of E Larkin 

1 Morses Geography 16.6 1 Don Quixote 12.0 1 Dyers Titles 6.0 1 Ers- 
kines Sermons 6.0 1 Doddridge Rise & Progress 53 1 Ditto Sermons 3.3 
1 Ditto Ditto 3.0 1 Ditto on Regeneration 5.3 1 Boyles Voyage 4.6 1 Re- 
ligious Courtship 4.6 1 Saunders Journal 3.0 1 Ladys Miscellany 4.6 1 
Gentlemans Ditto 4.6 1 Hive 4.6 1 Rassalas & Dirabus 5.3 1 Browns Ora- 
cles 3.9 1 Christian Life 4.0 ,£4.17.9 Discount 10 pr Ct 9.9 ,£4.8.0 Equal 
to #14.67 Deer 1797 

The Proprietors of Derryfield Library Bot of E. Larkin Deer 26 1798 

1 Josephar 6 Vol ,£1.10.0 1 Mores Journal 106 1 Robinsons Proofs 10.6 

,£2.11.0 Discount 10 pr Ct 5.2 ,£2.5. 10 Equal to #765 

The Proprietors of Derryfield Library Bot of E. Larkin 26th Deer 1799 
1 Goldsmith's Animated Nature 4 Vol 9 00 1 Morses Gazetteer 2.50 1 

Pilgrims Progress 75 1 Herveys Meditations 87 1-2 1 Maria Cecilia 87 1-2 

14 00 Disct 10 pr Ct 1.40 #12.60 



HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 127 

Derryfield Social Library Salem Feb 12th 1802 Bot of Cushing & Appleton 

Adams History of England 2 25 Davis Sermons 2 Vol 4.00 Hunters Sa- 
cred Biography 3 V 6.00 Adams Flowers of Travels 2 V 2.00 Lendronis (?) 
American Revolution 2 V 2.00 Ortans Discourses to the Aged 1.00 Life 
Joseph 62 1-2 Petitpierre on Divine Goodness 87 1-2 Phillip Quarll 75 Re- 
pository 75 Dickinsons Five Points 75 Female American 75 1 Blk Book 
2.00 1 ditto 1 00 24.75 Disct 10 pr Ct 2.47 1-2 $22.27 1-2 the Washing- 
tonia 1 ct (?) 

Manchester January 1st 1813 
Mr Thomas Stickney Brot forward 1 Book Exercises of Piety 1 An Expli- 
catory Catechism 1 a Short and Easy Method with Deists 

In addition to the foregoing five volumes were subsequently- 
bought of Capt. John Dwinell ; three of Job Rowell, one of Mr. 
Phineas Bailey and five volumes of Washington's Life, bought of 
Job Rowell ; two books were added in 1800 and one in 18 17. It 
appears from these records that the whole number of titles was 
eighty-two and the number of separate volumes not less than 
one hundred and twelve. In 1825 Betsey Kidder executed a 
deed to the Library, conveying her right and title to Jonathan 
Young. These names should be added to the list of proprietors 
previously given. It is probable that all the books were finally 
sold at public vendue. As each volume, by vote of 1798, was 
inscribed "Derryfield Social Library," etc., it is probable that 
some of these books are still in possession of the descendants of 
original proprietors or purchasers and may thus be identified. 
The suggestion is made that should any volumes of this curious 
collection be brought to light that they be deposited with the 
Manchester Historic Association for safe keeping. 

CONCLUSION. 

With this number we conclude the series of contributions to 
the early history of Manchester, throughout which we have kept 
up the pleasant fiction of Derryfield. The work has already 
outgrown our first design, but the field of inquiry is still inviting 
additional research. We have scarcely more than covered the 



128 HISTORY OF DERRYFIELD. 

period antedating the first actual settlements in Derryfield, and 
in the events occurring from 1750 to the date of the city charter 
much matter of interest remains to be made of record. 

We may attempt the task of gleaning the field already reaped, 
gathering perchance here and there a straw which has been jolt- 
ed from the historical wain, and prolonging a little further the 
search amid fast disappearing annals. For the period following 
1841 the writer will have the advantage of personal recollection, 
and he has already reached that over-ripe stage of life in which 
the pictures of past events are more vivid than those of recent 
occurrence. We should be permitted to add that the work is a 
labor of love, undertaken and published wholly at the expense 
of the writer, with little prospect of reward, but he is abundantly 
satisfied if he has succeeded in casting an added light upon the 
fading pages of the past. 



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